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III.— SOME  ACCOUNT  OF  GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY  AND  MANU- 
SCRIPT RECORDS  AND  THEIR  DISPERSION  FROM  MOUNT  VERNON, 
WITH  AN  EXCERPT  OF  THREE  MONTHS  FROM  HIS  DIARY  IN  1774  WHILE 
ATTENDING  THE  FIRST  CONTINENTAL  CONGRESS,  WITH  NOTES  BY 
J.  M.  TONER,  M.  D. 


71 


SOME  ACCOUNT  OF  GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY  AND 
MANUSCRIPT  RECORDS  AND  THEIR  DISPERSION  FROM  MOUNT 
VERNON,  WITH  AN  EXCERPT  OF  THREE  MONTHS  FROM  HIS 
DIARY  IN  1774  WHILE  ATTENDING  THE  FIRST* CONTINENTAL 
CONGRESS,  WITH  NOTES 


By  J.  M.  TONER,  M.  D. 


WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY  AND  MANUSCRIPT  RECORDS. 

It  has  been  suggested  to  me  to  furnish  for  publication  in  the 
Annual  Report  of  the  American  Historical  Association,  as  of 
special  historical  interest,  that  part  of  George  Washington's 
diary  beginning  one  month  prior  to  the  meeting  of  the  Conti- 
nental Congress  of  1774,  continuing  through  the  sitting  of  that 
body  in  Philadelphia,  and  closing  with  his  return  to  Mount 
Vernon. 

The  suggestion  is  made  on  the  theory  that,  as  I  have  already 
obtained  literal  copies  of  all  the  volumes,  known  to  be  in  ex- 
istence, of  the  diary  of  this  illustrious  character  and,  with  ex- 
planatory notes,  have  them  practically  ready  for  the  press,  I 
could  furnish  any  required  part  as  an  excerpt  with  but  little 
inconvenience  or  labor  and  with  no  detriment  to  the  diary  when 
published  iu  a  complete  form.  In  the  main  this  supposition  is 
correct. 

Washington's  diary  and  recorded  notes  upon  passing  events 
and  all  his  allusions  to  persons  and  places  at  any  period,  brief 
though  they  be,  are  of  very  high  value  to  all  who  are  interested 
in  his  life  and  the  history  of  the  Eepublic  which  he  did  so  much 
to  found. 

His  diary  is  measurably  continuous,  with  but  few  breaks, 
from  1760  to  the  close  of  his  eventful  life.  It  is  true  some  selec- 
tions from  it  have  been  printed  in  "  Washington's  Writings," 
by  Sparks,  also  by  other  editors  covering  particular  periods ; 
but  never  in  a  consecutive  form  which  made  any  pretension 
to  completeness.  The  fact  may  not  be  generally  known  that 

73 


74  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

the  diary  of  George  Washington  is  written  on  both  sides  of  the 
paper,  in  a  series  of  small  almanacs,  having  blank  leaves  bound 
in  them,  and  in  pocket  memorandum  books  containing  about 
one  hundred  pages  of  3J  by  5  inches  in  size.  For  some  years 
the  entries  fill  several  of  such  books.  In  time  these  volumes 
became  quite  numerous,  which,  with  their  small  size  and  want 
of  uniformity  in  shape  and  binding,  added  to  the  danger  of 
their  loss  from  accidental  displacement,  as  well  as  by  deliberate 
abstraction. 

At  the  general's  death,  all  of  his  papers  were  left  intact  and 
in  excellent  order.  Judge  Marshall  had  the  use  of  the  archives 
at  Mount  Vernon  in  the  preparation  of  his  "Life  of  Washing- 
ton," begun  the  year  of  the  General's  death,  and  published  in 
1804-07  in  five  volumes,  but  he  makes  no  mention  of  the  loss 
or  absence  of  any  papers.  However,  from  the  lax  care  and  the 
want  of  a  due  appreciation  of  the  great  value  of  these  papers, 
during  the  long  period  which  elapsed  before  the  historian  Jared 
Sparks  began  a  systematic  examination  of  the  letters  and  papers 
in  this  repository  of  unique  records  of  Washington's  early  life 
as  well  as  of  his  labors  during  the  War  of  Independence,  the 
adoption  of  the  constitution  of  the  United  States  and  the  in- 
auguration and  administration  of  the  Government  under  it  for 
eight  years,  the  collection  had  suffered  considerable  spoliation. 

It  is,  therefore,  difficult  to  avoid  the  reflection  that  Gen. 
Washington's  nephew  and  executor,  to  whom  he  left  his  library 
and  papers,  with  the  Mount  Vernon  mansion  and  a  plantation 
attached  of  over  4,000  acres,  lamentably  failed  to  appreciate, 
in  any  magnanimous  sense,  his  duty  to  his  uncle's  memory  or 
the  value  to  history  of  these  precious  literary  treasures. 

It  is  known  that  Judge  Bushrod  Washington  gave  some  of 
the  volumes  of  the  General's  diary  to  his  own  personal  friends 
as  memorials  and  keepsakes,  thereby  breaking  the  consecu- 
tiveness  of  the  personal  record  and  proving  himself  entirely 
oblivious  of  their  historical  worth. 

It  was  the  General's  delicacy  alone,  I  apprehend,  that  pre- 
vented his  indicating,  in  detail,  definite  measures  for  the  pres- 
ervation of  his  papers;  his  confident  expectation  being  that 
his  nephew,  out  of  common  gratitude  and  with  proper  compre- 
hension of  the  value  of  the  collection,  would  duly  devise  a  plan 
which  should  preserve  them  as  a  foundation  toward  a  national 
repository  of  original  records  for  the  true  history  of  the  rise  of 
the  Bepublic  and  the  donor's  own  life,  as  well  as  for  the  light 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          75 

they  alone  throw  on  the  efforts  and  principles  of  so  many  other 
worthy  actors  in  that  heroic  endeavor  which  founded  the 
Kepublic  we  enjoy.  The  ample  estate  which  went  with 
this  collection  of  papers,  he  doubtless  supposed,  would  have 
assured  its  safe  keeping  intact,  at  Mount  Vernon,  for  all  time 
for  the  benefit  of  the  people  of  the  United  States,  without  be- 
coming an  onerous  tax  upon  his  nephew  or  his  heirs.  He 
knew  the  aid  these  papers  would  be  to  historical  writers,  and 
the  gratification  they  would  give  statesmen  and  the  friends 
and  advocates  of  free  institutions.  That  such  was  the  hope 
of  the  "  Father  of  his  country,"  is  a  natural  inference,  from 
many  casual  expressions  in  his  letters  and  papers  as  to  their 
value  and  the  future  service  they  would  be  to  writers,  as  well 
as  from  his  uniform  habit  and  ceaseless  endeavors  from  his 
youth  to  his  last  hours  to  preserve  all  papers  connected  with 
his  journeys,  occupations,  business  transactions  and  official 
position  as  General  of  the  Army  and  President  of  the  Eepub- 
lic,  letters  received,  together  with  copies  of  his  own  letters 
sent,  his  papers  and  journals. 

The  gift,  or  devise  and  trust  of  Gen.  George  .Washington's 
books  and  papers,  is  in  the  words  following : — 

Item— To  my  nephew,  Bushrod  Washington,  I  give  and  bequeath  all  the 
papers  in  my  possession,  which  relate  to  my  civil  and  military  administra- 
tion of  the  affairs  of  this  country. 

I  leave  to  him  also  such  of  my  private  papers  as  are  worth  preserving, 
and  at  the  decease  of wife  and  before,  if  she  is  not  inclined  to  re- 
tain them,  I  give  and  bequeath  my  library  of  books  and  pamphlets  of 
every  kind.  [See  Will.] 

The  great  extent  of  Washington's  written  notes  and  ob- 
servations, surveys,  drafts  of  papers,  letters  and  studies  of 
different  kinds,  is  something  amazing.  In  his  library  these 
were  all  systematically  arranged  in  order  for  reference.  His 
inquiring  mind  and  his  disposition  to  collect  opinioDS,  docu- 
ments and  books  on  agriculture,  inland  navigation  and  govern- 
ment, and  other  lines  of  thought  in  which  he  was  interested 
have  been  but  inadequately  presented  by  his  biographers. 

The  great  attention  he  gave  to  taking  and  preserving  vouchers 
for  his  personal  expenses  while  in  command  of  the  Continental 
Army,  and  his  carefully  rendered  account  to  Congress  at  the 
end  of  the  war  of  moneys  received  and  disbursed  for  that 
purpose,  is  in  itself  a  monument  to  his  fixed  principles  of  ex- 
actness, industry  and  integrity.  The  evidence  of  this  may 
still  be  seen  at  the  Treasury  Department  in  vouchers  for  per- 


76  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

soual  expenses  while  in  the  Army,  unless  the  recent  spasm  for 
economizing  space  in  the  Treasury  building,  which  sent  tons 
of  records  to  the  paper  mill,  may  have  included  them  among 
those  as  "  unimportant  and  worthless  papers,"  doomed  to  de- 
struction under  an  act  of  Congress. 

It  is  known  that  Washington,  at  an  early  period  of  the  war 
for  Independence,  when  Governor  Dunmore  was  conducting  a 
destructive  warfare  upon  the  villages  on  tide  water  and  plan- 
tations along  the  Potomac  River,  where  there  was  no  military 
force  to  oppose  him,  and  when  it  was  apprehended  that  Mount 
Vernon  might  be  pillaged  and  destroyed,  ordered  all  his  papers 
to  be  carefully  packed  and  ready  for  removal  to  a  place  of 
safety,  should  the  necessity  arise.  Washington's  estimate  of 
the  importance  of  his  papers  in  writing  the  history  of  the 
Revolution,  as  well  as  that  of  his  own  life  and  employment  in 
the  public  service,  is  pretty  fully  stated  in  his  letter  to  Dr. 
James  Craik,  March  25,  1784  5  and  also  to  the  Rev.  John  With- 
erspoon,  March  8,  1785. 

MOUNT  VERNON,  25th  March,  1784. 

DEAR  SIR  :  In  answer  to  Mr.  Bowie's  request  to  you,  permit  me  to  as- 
sure that  gentleman,  that  I  shall  at  all  times  be  glad  to  see  him  at  this  re- 
treat— That  whenever  he  is  here,  I  will  give  him  the  perusal  of  any  public 
papers  antecedent  to  my  appointment  to  the  command  of  the  American 
army — that  he  may  be  laying  up  materials  for  his  work.  And  whenever 
Congress  shall  have  opened  their  Archives  to  any  Historian  for  information, 
that  he  shall  have  the  examination  of  all  others  in  my  possession  which 
are  subsequent  thereto ;  but  that  till  this  epoch,  I  do  not  think  myself  at 
liberty  to  unfold  papers  which  contain  all  the  occurrences  &  transac- 
tions of  my  late  command ; — first,  because  I  conceive  it  to  be  respectful  to 
the  sovereign  power  to  let  them  take  the  lead  in  this  business — &  next, 
because  I  have,  upon  this  principle,  refused  Doctr.  Gordon  &  others  who 
are  about  to  write  the  History  of  the  Revolution  this  privilege. — 

I  will  frankly  declare  to  you,  my  Dr.  Doctor  that  any  memoirs  of  my 
life,  distinct  &  unconnected  with  the  general  history  of  the  war,  would 
rather  hurt  my  feelings  than  tickle  my  pride  whilst  I  live.— I  had  rather 
glide  gently  down  the  stream  of  life,  leaving  it  to  posterity  to  think  & 
say  what  they  please  of  me,  than  by  any  act  of  mine  to  have  vanity  or  os- 
tentation imputed  to  me — And  I  will  furthermore  confess  that  I  was  rather 
surprised  into  a  consent,  when  Doctr.  Witherspoon  (very  unexpectedly) 
made  the  application,  than  considered  the  tendency  of  that  consent. — It 
did  not  occur  to  me  at  that  moment,  from  the  manner  in  which  the  ques- 
tion was  propounded — that  no  history  of  my  life,  without  a  very  great  deal 
of  trouble  indeed,  could  be  written  with  the  least  degree  of  accuracy, — un- 
less recourse  was  had  to  me,  or  to  my  papers  for  information — that  it 
would  not  derive  sufficient  authenticity  without  a  promulgation  of  this 
fact — &  that  such  a  promulgation  would  subject  me  to  the  imputation  I 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          77 

have  just  mentioned— which  would  hurt  me  the  more,  as  I  do  not  think 
vanity  is  a  trait  of  my  character. — 

It  is  for  this  reason,  &.  candour  obliges  me  to  be  explicit,  that  I  shall 
stipulate  against  the  publication  of  the  memoirs  Mr.  Bowie  has  in  contem- 
plation to  give  the  world,  'till  I  shou'd  see  more  probability  of  avoiding 
the  darts  which  /  think  would  be  pointed  at  me  on  such  an  occasion ;  and 
how  far,  under  these  circumstances,  it  would  be  worth  Mr.  Bowie's  while 
to  spend  time  which  might  be  more  usefully  employed  in  other  matters, 
is  with  him  to  consider;  as  the  practicability  of  doing  it  efficiently, 
without  having  free  access  to  the  documents  of  this  war,  which  must  fill 
the  most  important  pages  of  the  Memoir,  &  which  for  the  reasons  already 
assigned  cannot  be  admitted  at  present,  also  is. — If  nothing  happens  more 
than  I  at  present  foresee,  I  shall  be  in  Philadelphia  on  or  before  the  first  of 
May ;  where  'tis  probable  I  may  see  Mr.  Bowie  &  converse  further  with  him 
on  this  subject — in  the  meanwhile  I  will  thank  you  for  communicating 
these  Sentiments. — 

I  am  very  truly  Your  Affectionate  friend  &  Serv*, 

Go.  WASHINGTON.* 

To  Dr.  JAMES  CRAIK. 

MOUNT  VERNON,  8    March,  1785. 

REVEREND  SIR  :  From  the  cursory  manner  in  wch  you  expressed  the 
wish  of  Mr.  Bowie  to  write  the  Memoirs  of  iny  life — I  was  not,  at  the 
moment  of  your  application  &  my  assent  to  it,  struck  with  the  conse- 
quences to  which  it  tended: — but  when  I  came  to  reflect  upon  the  matter 
afterward,  &  had  had  some  conversation  with  Mr.  Bowie  on  the  subject;  I 
found  that  this  must  be  a  very  futile  work  (if  under  any  circumstances 
it  could  be  made  interesting)  unless  he  could  be  furnished  with  the  inci- 
dents of  my  life,  either  from  my  papers,  or  my  recollection,  and  digesting 
the  past  transactions  into  some  sort  of  form  &  order  with  respect  to  times 
&  circumstances : — I  knew  also  that  many  of  the  former  relative  to  the 
part  I  had  acted  in  the  war  between  France  &  G:  Britain  from  the 
year  1754,  until  the  peace  of  Paris ;  which  contained  some  of  the  most 
interesting  occurrences  of  my  life,  were  lost; — that  my  memory  is  too 
treacherous  to  be  relied  on  to  supply  this  defect ; — and,  admitting  both  were 
more  perfect,  that  submitting  such  a  publication  to  the  world  whilst  I 
continue  on  the  theatre,  might  be  ascribed  (however  involuntarily  I  was  led 
into  it)  to  vain  motives. — 

These  considerations  prompted  me  to  tell  Mr.  Bowie,  when  I  saw  him  at 
Philad0.  in  May  last,  that  I  could  have  no  agency  towards  the  publi- 
cation of  any  memoirs  respecting  myself  whilst  living : — but  as  I  had  given 
my  assent  to  you  (when  asked)  to  have  them  written,  &  as  he  had  been 
the  first  to  propose  it,  he  was  welcome  if  he  thought  his  time  would  not 
be  unprofitably  spent,  to  take  extracts  from  such  documents  as  yet  re- 
mained in  my  possession,  &  to  avail  himself  of  any  other  information  I 
could  give; — provided  the  publication  should  be  suspended  until  I  had 
quitted  the  stage  of  human  action. — I  then  intended,  as  I  informed  him,  to 
have  devoted  the  present  expiring  winter  in  arranging  all  my  papers  which 
I  had  left  at  home,  &  which  I  found  a  mere  mass  of  confusion  (occasioned 

*  Copied  from  transcript  in  Washington's  letter-book,  Department  of  State. 


78  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

by  frequently  shifting  them  into  trunks,  &  suddenly  removing  them  from 
the  reach  of  the  enemy) — but  however  strange  it  may  seem  it  is  never- 
theless true,  that  what  with  company;  references  of  old  matters  with 
which  I  ought  not  to  be  troubled — applications  for  certificates,  and  copies 
of  orders,  in  addition  to  the  routine  of  letters  which  have  multiplied 
greatly  upon  me ; — I  have  not  been  able  to  touch  a  single  paper,  or  transact 
any  business  of  my  own,  in  the  way  of  accots.  &a  during  the  whole  course 
of  the  winter;  or  in  a  word,  since  my  retirement  from  public  life. — 

I  have  two  reasons,  my  good  sir,  for  making  these  communications  to 
you — the  first  is,  by  way  of  apology  for  not  complying  with  my  promise 
in  the  full  extent  you  might  expect  in  favor  of  Mr.  Bowie — The  second 
is,  not  knowing  where  that  Gentleman  resides  I  am  at  a  loss  without  your 
assistance,  to  give  him  the  information  respecting  the  disordered  state  of 
my  papers,  which  he  was  told  should  be  arranged,  &  a  proper  selection 
of  them  made  for  his  inspection,  by  the  Spring.  Upon  your  kindness 
therefore  I  must  rely  to  convey  this  information  to  him; — for  tho'  I 
shou'd  be  glad  at  all  times,  to  see  Mr.  Bowie  here,  I  should  be  unhappy  if 
expectations  which  can  not  be  realized  (in  the  present  moment)  shou'd 
withdraw  him  from,  or  cause  him  to  forego  some  other  pursuits  which 
may  be  more  advantageous  to  him. — 

My  respects  if  you  please  to  Mrs.  Witherspoon. — 
I  have  the  honor  to  be,  etc., 

Go.  WASHINGTON.* 

To  the  Rev.  JOHN  WITHERSPOON. 

Immediately  after  the  death  of  his  mother,  in  writing  to 
his  sister,  Bettie  Lewis,  he  requested  her  to  have  "particular 
care  taken  of  [our  mother's]  papers,  the  letters  to  her,  etc., 
and  to  preserve  them  for  him."  His  solicitude  for  the  pres 
ervation  of  his  letters  and  papers  was  exhibited  in  a  marked 
manner  but  a  few  hours  before  his  death,  in  the  directions 
he  gave  Mr.  Lear : — 

Do  you  arrange  and  record  all  my  late  military  letters  and  papers ;  ar- 
range my  accounts  and  settle  my  books,  as  you  know  more  about  them 
than  anyone  else;  and  let  Mr.  Rawlins  finish  recording  my  other  letters 
which  he  has  begun.  (Lear's  account  of  Washington's  death,  in  Sparks, 
Vol.  I,  p.  557.) 

The  list  of  Gen.  Washington's  books  at  Mount  Vernon,  made 
by  the  appraisers  after  his  death,  and  to  be  found  in  Hon. 
Edward  Everett's  "Life  of  Washington,"  and  in  the  "Home 
of  Washington,"  by  Lossing,  is  meager  and,  I  apprehend,  very 
incomplete.  It  gives  less  than  a  thousand  titles  of  books  and 
pamphlets,  and  about  100  charts  and  maps.  As  confirmatory 
of  this  view  we  need  only  refer  to  the  many  stray  volumes 
which  may  be  seen  in  public  and  private  libraries,  and  to  the 
collection  in  the  Boston  Athenaeum,  designated  as  the  "Wash* 


:  Copied  from  transcript  in  Washington's  letter-book,  Department  of  State. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          79 

ington  Library/'  numbering  1,300  titles;  and  even  this  collec- 
tion, it  is  known,  represents  but  a  part  of  the  books  and 
pamphlets  owned  by  Gen.  Washington  at  the  time  of  his 
death. 

Some  account  of  the  dispersion  and,  as  far  as  practicable, 
the  present  resting  place  of  the  library  of  books  and  manu- 
scripts so  laboriously  gathered  and  so  carefully  preserved  at 
Mount  Vernon  by  Gen.  Washington,  may  have  at  least  a  mel- 
ancholy interest  in  connection  with  the  diary  from  which  we 
are  about  to  give  an  excerpt.  The  following  information  as  to 
the  Mount  Vernon  library  and  manuscripts  has  been  derived 
from  authentic  records  and  other  reliable  sources. 

The  library  and  manuscript  papers  of  G;en.  George  Wash- 
ington given  to  his  nephew,  Justice  Bushrod  Washington,  one 
of  the  executors,  were  kept  intact  at  Mount  Vernon  until  his 
own  death  in  1829.  He,  however,  permitted  the  free  use  of  them 
by  reputable  writers,  and  under  a  written  contract  gave  the 
Eev.  Jared  Sparks  leave  to  take  the  manuscripts  to  Boston  to 
copy  and  have  them  near  him,  for  consultation,  while  he  was 
editing  the  life  and  writings  of  Washington.  Many  times  in 
the  discharge  of  the  public  business  the  heads  of  the  Depart- 
ments of  the  United  States  Government  wished  to  consult 
these  early  records,  but  they  were  not  within  their  reach. 
Except  a  few  autograph  letters,  papers  and  memorandum  books 
of  the  immense  mass  of  manuscript  at  Mount  Vernon  given 
by  Judge  Washington,  from  the  files  to  Mends,  as  curiosi- 
ties, the  collection  was  supposed  by  him  to  be  unimpaired  and 
practically  in  the  condition  in  which  it  came  into  his  possession 
on  the  death  of  his  uncle.  The  Judge  in  his  will  devises  the 
literary  treasures  he  had  received  in  the  following  words : — 

Thirteenth. — All  the  papers  and  letter  books  devised  to  me  by  my  uncle, 
General  George  Washington,  as  well  as  the  books  in  my  study,  other  than 
law  books,  I  give  to  iny  nephew  George  C.  Washington;  the  books  in  the 
cases  in  the  dining  room  I  give  to  my  nephew,  John  Augustine  Washing- 
ton. (See  Judge  Bushrod  Washington's  will  in  "Albert  Welles's  History  of  the 
Washington  Family,"  p.  327.) 

George  Corbin  Washington  was  a  lawyer  of  ability,  the 
son  of  William  Augustine  Washington  (who  married  his  cousin 
Jane,  daughter  of  John  Augustine  Washington),  and  a  grand- 
son of  Augustine,  the  father  of  the  General.  He  was  liber- 
ally educated  at  Cambridge,  resided  on  a  fine  plantation  in 
Montgomery  County,  Md.,  and  was  a  Member  of  Congress  for 
three  terms.  He  was  for  many  years  president  of  the  Chesa- 


80  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

peake  and  Ohio  Canal  Company.  He  was  twice  married  and 
left  one  surviving  son,  Lewis  William  Washington. 

This  most  valuable  collection  of  records,  family  papers  and 
books  thus  passed  into  the  legal  possession  of  the  Hon.  George 
Corbin  Washington  ;  yet  from  the  fact  that  the  greater  and  more 
valuable  part  of  them  had  gone  direct  to  Boston,  from  Mount 
Vernon,  under  a  contract  bearing  date  January  17, 1827,  between 
Justice  Bushrod  Washington  and  the  Rev.  Jared  Sparks,  and 
were  not  returned  at  the  time  of  the  Judge's  death,  nor  indeed 
had  they  been  when  the  Hon.  G.  C.  Washington  made  sale  of 
them  to  the  United  States,  it  is  probable  that  a  large  portion 
of  the  Washington  papers  were,  therefore,  never  in  the  latter's 
actual  possession. 

In  the  practical  administration  of  the  Government  under  the 
Constitution,  and  particularly  in  the  adjustment  of  claims 
brought  against  the  United  States  and  authorized  by  Congress 
to  be  equitably  settled,  the  value  of  these  records  in  reaching 
just  conclusions  had  often  presented  itself  to  the  heads  of 
the  several  Departments.  The  desire  to  possess  them  was  not 
an  ebullition  of  sentiment  or  patriotism ;  it  would  seem  that 
it  was  almost  wholly  from  a  business  standpoint,  and  in  con- 
sideration of  the  use  they  would  be  to  the  National  Govern- 
ment. It  may  not  be  without  interest  to  present  briefly  in  the 
following  compendium  some  of  the  steps  which  led  to  the  ac- 
quirement of  the  greater  portion  of  these  precious  papers  by 
the  Government. 

DEPARTMENT  OF  STATE, 

December  10,  1833. 
GEORGE  C.  WASHINGTON,  Esquire: 

*  SIR  :  Being  desirous  of  rendering  as  complete  as  possible  the  Archives  of 
the  United  States,  and  especially  those  which  belong  to  that  most  interest- 
ing portion  of  our  history,  the  struggle  for  independence,  I  take  the  liberty 
to  address  you  on  the  subject  of  some  official  papers  and  records  of  Gen- 
eral Washington,  which  are  understood  to  he  in  your  possession. 

The  value  of  the  papers  of  your  illustrious  relative,  in  a  public  point  of 
view,  was  justly  esteemed  by  him ;  and,  in  a  letter  addressed  to  the  Presi- 
dent of  Congress  on  the  4th  of  April,  1781,  he  informed  that  body,  that  it 
had  been  found  impracticable  "  to  register  the  copies  of  the  letters,  Instruc- 
tions, &c.,  in  books,  by  which  means  valuable  documents,  which  may  be 
of  equal  public  utility  and  private  satisfaction,  remain  in  loose  sheets  and 
in  the  rough  manner  in  which  they  were  first  drawn"  and  he  suggested 
that  writers  might  be  employed  to  arrange  and  register  them.  Congress 
took  the  same  view  of  the  subject,  and  immediately,  on  the  10th  of  April, 
1781,  authorized  him  to  employ  an  additional  confidential  secretary  and  as 
many  writers  as  he  should  judge  proper,  to  arrange  and  register  the  public 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          81 

letters,  and  other  documents  in  the  office  at  Head  Quarters  and  assign  them 
such  salaries  as  he  might  see  proper. 

The  Department  of  State  is  in  possession  of  the  correspondence  between 
the  Coinmander-in-Chief  and  the  President  of  Congress,  and  a  small  part 
of  that  with  the  General  Officers  and  the  Governors  of  States ;  but,  whether 
the  other  letters,  instructions,  &c.,  above  referred  to,  were  ever  placed 
among  the  archives  of  the  Government,  does  not  appear. 

It  is  presumed  that  it  may  be  agreeable  to  you,  as  well  on  the  grounds 
of  public  utility  as  from  a  desire  to  preserve  in  so  safe  and  so  suitable  a 
depository,  the  official  papers  and  records  of  your  eminent  kinsman,  to 
consent,  that  any,  which  may  be  in  your  possession  of  that  description,  may 
be  deposited  among  the  national  archives  in  this  Department. 

I  will  thank  you  to  acquaint  me  with  your  views  on  this  subject,  and,  if 
they  should  be  favorable,  to  inform  me  upon  what  conditions  you  would 
be  willing  to  enter  into  such  an  arrangement. 

I  am,  Sir*  very  respectfully,  your  obedient  servant, 

Louis  McLANE. 

To  the  foregoing  proposition  Mr.  Washington  responded  fit- 
tingly and  patriotically,  giving  a  brief  outline  of  the  character 
and  extent  of  the  papers  of  Gen.  Washington  which  he  in- 
herited, and  expressing  his  willingness  to  part  with  such  of 
them  as  related  to  the  political  history  of  the  country,  to  the 
end  that  they  might  become  a  part  of  the  records  of  the 
National  Government. 

The  following  is  his  answer  in  full: — 

GEORGE  TOWN,  Jan*.  3rd,  1834. 
Hon.  LEWIS  MCLANE,  Secy,  of  State. 

SIR:  I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  10th  Decr.,  expressing  your  de- 
sire "of  rendering  as  complete  as  possible  the  Archives  of  the  United 
States,  and  especially  those  which  belong  to  that  most  interesting  portion 
of  our  history,  the  struggle  for  independence  " — which  are  to  be  found  in 
the  official  papers  and  records  of  Gen1.  Washington,  in  my  possession. 

You  suggest,  "  that  it  may  be  agreeable  to  me,  as  well  on  the  grounds 
of  public  utility,  as  from  a  desire  to  preserve  in  so  safe  and  so  suitable  a 
depository,  the  official  papers  and  records  of  my  eminent  kinsman,  to  con- 
sent, that  any  which  may  be  in  my  possession  of  that  description,  may  be 
deposited  among  the  National  Archives"  in  the  State  Department,  &  in 
conclusion,  you  request  me  to  acquaint  you  with  my  views  on  the  subject, 
"  and  if  they  should  be  favorable,"  to  inform  you  upon  what  conditions, 
I  would  be  willing  to  enter  into  such  an  arrangement.  I  have  given  to  the 
subject  the  consideration  which  its  interest  and  importance  merits,  and 
now  briefly  present  to  you  my  views  in  relation  to  it. 

The  papers  devised  by  Gen1.  Washington  to  my  late  relative,  Judge 
Washington  &  by  him  to  me,  comprises  an  immense  mass  of  information, 
intimately  connected  with  the  history  of  our  country  from  the  years  1752 
to  1799.  They  embrace  papers  in  relation  to  the  French  war,  Braddock's 
defeat,  and  other  interesting  events,  prior  to  the  revolution.  The  papers 
immediately  in  connection  with  the  revolution  are  of  great  interest  and 
vast  amount.  These  comprise  his  correspondence  with  Congress,  the  Gov- 
S.  Mis.  57 6 


82  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

ernors  of  the  States,  the  officers  of  the  Army,  both  American  and  foreign, 
and  in  a  word,  everything  connected  with  his  long  and  arduous  duties  as 
Commander  in  chief.  The  next  epoch  which  they  include,  is  that,  in  rela- 
tion to  the  formation  of  the  Government  and  the  adoption  of  the  Constitu- 
tion, and  the  history  of  his  administration,  comprised  in  13  Vols.  from 
1789  to  1797  &  13  Vols.  containing  records  and  transactions  between  the 
President  and  Departments  from  1789  to  1797  &  also  the  journal  of  the 
President. 

The  original  letters  received  by  Gen1.  Washington  from  his  illustrious 
cotemporaries  and  others,  &  his  miscellaneous  papers,  probably  amount 
to  more  than  twenty  thousand,  the  larger  portion  of  which  are  bound, 
and  comprise,  I  think,  121  vols. 

In  the  above  description,  I  have  given  you  but  an  imperfect  idea  of  the 
value  and  magnitude  of  these  papers. 

To  part  with  these  relicks  of  the  father  of  our  country  exacts  no  small 
sacrifice  of  personal  feeling,  but  taught  by  the  example  of  my  venerated 
relative,  who  never  permitted  private  views  and  feelings  to  interpose  in  the 
performance  of  what  he  conceived  a  public  duty,  I  will  consent  to  their 
being  deposited  in  the  Archives  of  the  nation. 

I  am  further  induced  to  comply  with  your  request,  by  the  consideration, 
that  these  papers  are  distinctly  National  in  their  Character,  illustrative  of 
the  events  of  our  glorious  Revolution,  and  of  the  rise  and  progress  of  all 
our  political  institutions,  and  therefore  should  be  the  property  of  the  Na- 
tion. In  the  hands  of  an  individual,  they  are  also  liable  to  casualties, 
which  might  in  a  moment  sweep  into  oblivion  this  proud  monument  of 
the  moral  excellence  and  intellectual  labors  of  one,  whose  memory  is 
cherished  by  his  countrymen,  &  whose  long  life  was  devoted  to  their 
service. 

Permit  me,  Sir,  here  to  add,  that  it  would  be  a  source  of  proud  gratifica- 
tion to  me,  could  I  gratuitously  present  these  papers  to  my  country,  but 
duties  and  considerations  of  a  private  nature,  which  it  may  not  become 
me  to  particularize,  forbid  the  indulgence  of  my  wishes. 

I  am  willing  that  the  Government  shall  possess  all  the  papers  of  a  general 
character,  or  in  any  manner  connected  with  the  Colonial,  revolutionary 
&  political  history  of  the  country,  only  reserving  such,  as  are  of  a 
private  nature,  or  which  it  would  be  obviously  improper  to  make  public. 

To  fix  a  valuation,  would  be  a  difficult  task,  as  the  intrinsic  worth  of  such 
property,  can  be  estimated  by  no  standard  with  which  I  am  acquainted — 
nor  have  I  any  criterion  by  which  to  be  governed,  further,  than  the  esti- 
mation which  public  sentiment  has  attached  to  it,  together  with  the 
opinion  often  expressed  to  me  by  Judge  Washington,  who  conceived  that 
the  legacy  was  of  great  pecuniary  as  well  as  moral  value,  as  furnishing 
important  materials  for  future  publication  (exclusive  of  the  compilation 
now  in  progress  by  Mr.  Sparks).  The  manuscripts  bound,  I  think  amount 
to  201  Vols.,  and  I  believe  I  am  within  bounds  in  saying,  that  if  all  these 
papers  were  printed  they  would  make  from  fifty  to  one  hundred  vols. 

I  have  reason  to  believe,  that  a  liberal  sum  would  be  cheerfully  given 
by  citizens  of  one  State  of  the  Union,  with  the  view  of  placing  these 
papers  in  a  public  institution  and  safe  depository — but  it  would  be  more 
grateful  to  my  feelings  that  they  should  belong  to  the  whole  Nation  than 
to  any  particular  section. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          83 

Mr.  Sparks,  who  is  favorably  known  to  the  public  as  an  able  writer,  is 
engaged  in  publishing  a  compilation  from  these  voluminous  papers,  which 
I  understand  is  now  in  the  press,  &  is  looked  for  with  intense  interest 
by  the  people.  The  papers  are  in  his  keeping  at  this  time,  in  a  fine  state 
of  arrangement  and  preservation,  and  safe  from  accidents  by  being  de- 
posited in  a  fire-proof  vault.  They  are  also  insured  to  a  large  amount. 

I  cannot  name  a  specific  sum,  as  an  equivalent,  but  confiding  in  the 
liberality  of  the  Government,  I  am  willing  to  enter  into  such  an  arrange- 
ment as  may  be  mutually  satisfactory,  in  which  event,  I  will  transfer 
forthwith  to  the  Government  my  title  to  the  papers  (with  the  reservation 
before  mentioned)  to  be  delivered  as  soon  as  practicable,  after  the  publi- 
cation above  alluded  to. 

In  consequence  of  suggestions  which  have  been  made  on  the  subject,  I 
will  here  state,  that  I  have  in  my  possession,  that  portion  of  Gen1.  Washing- 
ton's library,  relating  to  the  public  records  of  the  country,  from  the  journals 
of  the  Continental  Congress  to  the  close  of  his  administration,  including 
State  papers,  etc.  I  believe  the  series  to  be  complete,  and  should  it  be 
deemed  important  to  have  them  added  to  the  library,  either  of  Congress  or  of 
the  State  Department,  I  am  willing  that  the  Government  shall  have  them 
for  such  reasonable  equivalent  as  may  be  decided  on. 

I  have  the  honor  to  be,  Very  Respectfully,  Yr.  Ob*.  Serv*., 

G.  C.  WASHINGTON. 

The  letter  of  the  Hon.  Mr.  Washington  was  so  encouraging  as 
to  induce  the  Secretary  of  State  to  have  a  bill  introduced  into 
Congress  for  the  purchase  of  the  Washington  papers.  The  bill 
was  referred  to  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Affairs  to  inquire 
into  the  expediency  of  purchasing  the  library  and  official  and 
private  papers  of  Gen.  Washington,  to  be  deposited  in  the  De- 
partment of  State. 

The  State  Department  furnished  to  the  Committee  such  infor- 
mation as  it  could  procure  of  the  extent  and  character  of  the  col- 
lection, which,  it  was  found,  would  add  much  to  the  completeness 
of  the  records  of  the  Government,  as  was  well  known  to  the  of- 
cials  and  clerks  who  were  acquainted  with  the  deficiencies  and 
needs  of  the  office,  as  well  as  by  historians,  who  had  examined 
the  papers. 

April  1, 1834,  Mr.  Archer,  from  the  Committee  of  the  House, 
made  a  favorable  report,  No.  381,  from  which  we  quote : — 

From  the  answer  of  the  proprietor,  Mr.  George  C.  Washington,  sent  to 
the  committee,  it  appeared  that,  as  well  on  grounds  of  public  utility  as 
from  a  desire  for  the  safe  and  suitable  preservation  of  these  documents,  he 
was  willing  to  transfer  them  in  property  to  the  United  States,  for  such 
equivalent  as  might  be  deemed  reasonable  by  this  Government. 

From  evidence  annexed  it  appears  that  the  papers  in  question  comprise 
an  immense  mass  of  information  intimately  connected  with  the  history  of 
our  country,  from  the  year  of  1752  to  1799.  They  embrace  papers  in  rela- 
tion to  the  French  war,  Braddock's  defeat,  and  other  interesting  events 
prior  to  the  Revolution. 


84  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

The  papers  immediately  in  connection  with  the  Revolution  are  of  great 
interest  and  vast  moment.  These  comprise  the  correspondence  of  George 
Washington  with  Congress,  the  Governors  of  the  States,  the  Officers  of  the 
army,  both  American  and  foreign,  and,  in  a  word,  everything  connected 
with  his  long  and  arduous  duties  as  Commander-in-chief. 

The  next  epoch  which  they  include  is  that  in  relation  to  the  formation 
of  the  Government,  and  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution,  and  the  history 
of  his  administration,  comprised  in  thirteen  volumes ;  and  thirteen  volumes 
containing  records  and  transactions  between  the  President  and  the  Depart- 
ments from  1789  to  1797;  and  also  the  journal  of  the  President. 

The  original  letters  received  by  General  Washington  from  his  illustrious 
contemporaries,  and  the  miscellaneous  papers,  probably  amounting  to  more 
than  twenty  thousand,  the  larger  portion  of  which  are  bound,  and  com- 
prise one  hundred  and  twenty-one  volumes. 

Such  is  the  general  description  given  by  the  proprietor,  confirmed  by  a 
corresponding  statement  from  the  gentleman  who  has,  for  some  time,  had 
the  custody  of  these  papers  for  the  purpose  of  consulting  them,'  and  who 
is  better  enabled  than  any  other  person  to  give  a  just  account  of  their  char- 
acter and  probable  value. 

As  regards  the  desirableness  of  the  acquisition  on  the  part  of  the  Gov- 
ernment, the  Committee  can  have  no  hesitation  in  expressing  an  affirma- 
tive opinion. 

As  regards  the  price  to  be  affixed  to  the  papers,  the  committee  have  ap- 
prehended difficulty,  a  part  of  the  considerations  affecting  their  value  not 
being  appreciable  in  money.  From  this  they  have  been  relieved,  however, 
by  learning  the  estimate  put  on  them  as  objects  of  mercantile  speculation. 
They  have  been  led,  from  several  sources  of  information,  to  believe  that  the 
proprietor  would  have  little  difficulty  in  obtaining  the  price  which  he  lias 
consented  to  receive  from  the  public,  from  a  preference  that  they  should 
belong  to  the  nation. 

The  committee  would  further  remark  that  nearly  the  same  price  was 
paid  for  the  library  of  Mr.  Jefferson,  merely,  without  his  papers,  which  it 
is  now  proposed  to  give  for  all  the  autograph  and  other  papers  of  General 
Washington,  not  purely  of  a  private  nature,  or  which  it  would  be  improper 
to  make  public,  together  with  a  portion  of  his  library. 

In  pursuance  of  the  views  they  have  expressed,  they  report  an  amend- 
ment to  the  general  appropriation  bill,  to  be  offered  when  this  bill  shall 
be  taken  up. 

Appended  to  the  report  of  the  Committee  is  the  following 
comprehensive  description  of  the  collection  and  an  explicit 
letter  on  the  subject  from  the  historian  Jared  Sparks  to  the 
Hon.  Edward  Everett,  as  to  the  extent  and  value  of  the  Wash- 
ington papers,  which  we  copy : — 

CAMBRIDGE,  March  3, 1834. 

DEAR  SIR  :  I  have  received  your  letter  of  the  22d  ultimo,  asking  such 
information  as  I  can  furnish  respecting  the  amount  and  character  of  the 
manuscript  papers  left  by  General  Washington  and  my  opinion  as  to  the 
sum  which  Congress  may  reasonably  pay  for  them. 

The  amount  of  the  papers  may  be  understood  from  the  following  sum- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          85 

1.  Public  and  private  letters,  and  other  papers  before  the  Revolution, 
embracing  his  official  correspondence  during  the  French  war,  seven  folio 
volumes. 

2.  His  entire  correspondence,  official  and  private,  from  the  beginning 
to  the  end  of  the  Revolution,  including  other  original  military  papers  of 
great  value,  recorded  in  thirty-seven  volumes;  also,  the  first  draughts  of 
the  above  papers  on  file,  being  the  identical  papers  which  were  retained 
and  consulted  by  General  Washington  in  the  Army.     It  thus  appears  that 
there  are  two  copies  of  all  his  letters  written  during  the  Revolution.    The 
recorded  copy  was  made  near  the  end  of  the  war.     There  are  also  six  vol- 
umes of  orderly  books. 

3.  Letters  and  miscellaneous  papers,  public  and  private,  after  the  Revo- 
lution and  coming  down  to  the  end  of  his  life,  thirty-six  volumes.      Among 
them  are  two  records  of  his  intercourse  with  the  different  Departments 
while  he  was  President,  and  many  important  cabinet  papers. 

The  above  are  General  Washington's  own  letters  or  papers.  There  are 
besides : — 

4.  The  original  letters  received  by  General  Washington,  and  numerous 
original  papers  on  public  affairs,  military,  civil  and  miscellaneous,  chrono- 
logically arranged  in  a  continuous  series,  amounting  to  one  hundred  and 
seventeen  large  volumes. 

5.  A  few  miscellaneous  papers  on  file. 

Hence  the  whole  collection  consists  of  two  hundred  and  three  volumes, 
besides  the  copy  of  the  Revolutionary  correspondence  on  file.  The  papers 
are,  throughout,  methodically  arranged,  well  preserved  and  strongly 
bound. 

As  to  their  value  in  a  pecuniary  sense,  or  the  sum  which  Congress  may 
reasonably  pay  for  them,  it  is  a  question  not  easy  to  answer ;  but  I  have 
no  objection  to  expressing  my  opinion.  When  I  took  them  into  my  hands  I 
would  have  given  for  them,  as  literary  property,  $20,000.  The  use  I  am 
making  of  them  in  selecting  parts  for  publication  will  diminish  the  value, 
but  still,  if  the  purchase  of  them  is  deemed  a  national  object,  I  should 
think  $20,000  the  lowest  price  that  ought  to  be  affixed  for  them. 

As  a  historical  treasure  to  the  nation,  they  are  altogether  invaluable. 
I  have  examined  all  the  public  offices  in  the  country  containing  papers 
relating  to  Revolutionary  events,  and  I  do  not  hesitate  to  say  that  these 
manuscripts  comprise  a  mass  of  materials  for  the  history  of  that  period 
more  authentic,  rich  and  important  than  can  be  obtained  from  all  the 
public  sources  combined. 

It  would  be  easy  to  go  into  detail  and  set  forth  the  grounds  of  my  opin- 
ion, but  this  would,  perhaps,  be  gratuitous;  I  will  only  add  that  my  im- 
pressions have  been  derived  from  a  very  close  examination  of  the  subject, 
and  they  have  constantly  grown  stronger  as  I  have  advanced. 

I  forward  to  you  a  pamphlet  containing  two  letters,  which  you  will  prob- 
ably remember  to  have  seen  before,  but  which  will  revive  some  particu- 
lars respecting  the  object  of  your  inquiry. 

I  am,  dear  sir,  with  sincere  regards,  your  friend  and  most  obedient  serv- 
ant, 

JARED  SPARKS. 

Hon.  EDWARD  EVERETT. 


86  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

The  followiDg  is  a  memorandum  of  the  books  and  papers 
furnished  by  Mr.  Washington  to  the  Secretary  of  State,  and 
is  preserved  in  that  office.  A  similar  list  had  also  been  fur- 
nished to  the  Committee  on  Foreign  Kelations,  which,  with 
Mr.  Sparks's  letter,  led  to  the  adoption  of  the  report  by  the 
Committee  recommending  the  purchase. 

Papers  in  my  office  in  George  Town  to  be  delivered  at  the  State  Dept. 

5  orderly  books  taken  from  the  British  in  the  Revolutionary  war. 

12  books  and  pamphlets,  being  orderly  books,  warrant,  regimental,  re- 
cruiting, deserters,  list  of  officers  discharged,  dates  of  commissions, 
&c.,  &c.,  Revolutionary  Army. 

1  returns  of  ordnance  and  military  stores. 

2  manuscript  journals  of  the  Congress  of  1775. 
2  inspection  rolls  of  negroes. 

4  relating  to  the  French  war. 

6  bundles  of  addresses,  resolutions,  and  answers  on  his  retiring  from  the 

Army,  as  Prest.,  and  on  the  proclamation  of  1793,  with  the  answers. 

1  bundle  of  papers,  containing  letters  from  John  Hancock,  from  the  com- 
mander of  the  British  forces,  and  governors  of  the  States. 

1  do.  original  letters  from  Congress  and  the  Board  of  War. 

1  do.  original  letters  to  Genl.  Arnold,  probably  found  among  his  papers  at 
West  Point. 

1  do  miscellaneous  papers. 

1  do.  do.  do.      military. 

1  do.  do.  do.  do. 

1  do.  do.  do.  do. 

1  do.  papers  relating  to  the  Cincinnati. 

1  do.  list  of  draughts  and  other  papers  respecting  the  militia. 

1  bundle  military. 

2  do.         do. 

1      do.      returns  of  clothing,  1777, 1778, 1780. 

1      do.      military  miscellaneous. 

19  bundles  returns  of  officers  and  men,  agreeable  to  general  orders  of  Sep- 
tember, 1778. 

A  few  loose  papers. 

1  do.  miscellaneous. 

Ido.  papers  of  1756. 

1  do.  company  pay  rolls,  with  receipts,  etc. 

1  paper,  being  a  "List  of  Gen'l  and  Field  Officers  of  the  Virginia  Line  in 
the  late  (Revolutionary)  Army  of  the  United  States,  who  continued 
in  service  to  the  end  of  the  war,  or  were  deranged  in  pursuance  of 
acts  of  Congress." 

1  bundle  report  of  guards,  21  Augt.  1780. 

1     do.      additional  corps  resignations,  30th  April,  1780. 

1      do.      return  of  military  stores,  1781,  1783. 

1      do.      Genl.  returns  for  Augt.,  1778. 

1      do.      return  of  provisions  Northern  Department.  B 

1     do.      hospital  returns. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          87 

1  bundle  inspection  returns,  issues,  etc.,  1777,  1780. 

1      do.      inspection  returns,  1779,  1780. 

1      do.  do.  do.        do.     do. 

1      do.      list  of  deserters. 

1      do.      arrangements  and  appointments  1775  and  1776. 

1      do.      Quartennaster-Genl.  returns,  1779. 

1      do.      Pennsylvania  resignations,  1777, 1778  to  1781. 

1      do.      indentures. 

1      do.      commissaries  and  quartermasters'  returns,  1780. 

3     do.      Virginia  resignations  (large  bundles)  1777,  1778,  1779. 

1      do.      oaths  of  abjuration  and  allegiance  of  the  officers  of  the  Army 

(large  bundle)  1778. 

1      do.      Maryland  line  resignations,  1779,  1780. 
1      do.      cavalry  resignations,  1777,  1778  to  1780. 
1  bundle  sappers  and  miners'  resignations,  1781,  1782. 
1      do.      New  Hampshire  resignations,  1777  and  1778. 
1      do.      promotions. 

1      do.      artillery  resignations,  1777,  1778  to  1782. 
1      do.      Connecticut  resignations,  1777,  1778. 
1     do.      resignations  North  Carolina  officers,  1777,  '78  and  '79. 
1      do.      Connecticut  line  resignations,  1779  to  1783. 
1      do.      bills  and  receipts,  1778,  '79  to  1780. 

1      do.        do.  do.        of  his  Excell'ys  family  expenses,  1776,  1777. 

1      do.      returns  of  the  Gen'l  Hospital,  1775. 
1      do.      returns  of  military  stores,  1779. 

1      do.      Gen'l  returns  of  issues  of  provisions,  &c.,  Middle  Dep't,  1777,  1780. 
1      do.      selection  and  arrangement  of  officers. 
1  bundle  resignations  of  Rhode  Island  regiments,  1777,  '78  to  1782. 
1      do.      Massachusetts  resignations,  1780. 
1      do.      New  Jersey  resignations,  1777,  '78  to  1783. 
1      do.      Massachusetts  resignations,  1777,  '80  to  1779. 
1      do.      resignations  and  discharges,  1782. 
1     do.     Massachusetts  resignations,  1781  to  1783. 
Letter  of  Fick,  late  professor  at  Esslingen. 
1  do.  French  poetry  in  honor  of  Gen'l  Washington. 
1  bundle  letters  to  Commissioners  of  Washington  City  and  other  persons 

(recorded  in  Vol.  ix),  1797. 
1  bundle  letters  of  Gen'l  Washington's  on  various  subjects  recorded  in 

Vol.  xii. 

10  Vols.  Army  returns. 

13  Vols.  Journals  of  Congress  from  1774  to  1788. 
Journals  of  Congress. 
[Endorsement.]     Papers  in  the  office  of  Geo.  C.  Washington. 

Upon  a  presentation  of  these  facts  by  the  Secretary  of  State 
to  the  legislative  branch  of  the  Government,  an  act  of  Con- 
gress was  passed  and  approved  June  30,  1834,  appropriating 
$25,000  "to  enable  the  Secretary  to  purchase^the  manuscript 
papers  and  a  portion  of  the  printed  books  of  Gen.  George 
Washington,  the  said  papers  and  books  to  be  deposited  and 


88  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

preserved  in  the  Department  of  State  under  the  regulations 
the  Secretary  shall  prescribe." 

Before  the  act  became  a  law,  an  understanding  had  been 
reached  between  the  Hon.  George  C.  Washington  and  the  then 
Secretary  of  State,  John  Forsythe,  as  to  the  amount  of  money 
to  be  paid  for  the  manuscript  papers  and  books  of  Gen.  Wash- 
ington, and  the  manner  of  their  delivery  to  the  Government. 

The  following  letter,  from  Mr.  Sparks  to  the  Hon.  G.  C. 
Washington,  concerning  the  classification  of  the  public  and 
private  manuscript  books  and  diary  of  Gen.  Washington,  is 
especially  interesting : 

CAMBRIDGE,  Feb'y  23,  1835. 

DEAR  SIR  :  When  I  took  the  papers  from  Mount  Vernon,  some  of  the 
numbers  of  General  Washington's  diary,  or  journal  were  missing.  Judge 
Washington  told  me  afterwards,  that  he  had  found  them,  and  would  send 
them  to  me ;  but  they  never  came.  They  are  small,  thin,  manuscript  books. 
If  you  find  them  among  the  private  papers  left  with  you,  I  shall  be  much 
obliged  if  you  will  send  them  to  me,  as  they  are  essential  in  writing  the 
life  of  Genl.  Washington.  They  will  go  back  to  you  among  the  private 
papers.  Will  you  have  the  goodness  to  put  them  into  the  hands  of  Mr. 
Everett,  who  will  bring  them  safely!  I  hope  you  will  have  the  goodness 
to  embrace  this  opportunity,  as  another  so  good  a  one  may  not  soon  occur. 
When  I  send  the  papers  back,  do  you  wish  me  to  direct  them  all  to  the 
Department  of  State,  or  shall  I  put  the  private  papers  up  separately  and 
direct  them  to  you?  I  think  you  told  me  that  you  had  reserved  the  pri- 
vate papers,  and  I  should  like  your  instructions. 
Respectfully  &  truly  yours, 

JARED  SPARKS. 
Hon.  GEO.  C.  WASHINGTON, 

Georgetown,  D.  C. 

As  might  have  been  expected,  the  question  of  selection  and 
determination  as  to  what  constituted  private,  and  what  public 
papers,  arose  after  their  delivery  and  examination  in  the  De- 
partment of  State.  Some  deficiencies  were  discovered,  though 
the  delivery  seems  to  have  corresponded  with  the  schedule. 
When  these  facts  were  reported  by  the  examiners,  it  led  to 
a  further  correspondence  between  the  Department  of  State 
and  the  Hon.  G.  O.  Washington,  with  the  result  of  adding  a 
very  few  papers  to  the  original  deposit,  but  leaving  a  regret 
with  the  Department  that  the  whole  of  the  Washington  papers 
of  every  character  had  not  been  provided  for  in  the  purchase. 
The  evident  tenor  of  the  will  of  the  general,  as  well  as  that 
of  his  nephew,  Justice  Bushrod  Washington,  was  to  preserve 
intact  and  convey  all  the  papers  collected  and  preserved  at 
Mount  Vernon  as  an  entirety.  Under  these  two  wills,  the  col- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          89 

lection  of  manuscripts  was  presumed  to  have  reached  Hon. 
George  Oorbin  Washington  intact,  and  that  he  made  sale  of 
them  to  the  Government  with  the  single  reservation  already 
stated.  Mr.  Washington  defended  his  classification  of  the  re- 
served papers  and  quoted  in  justification  the  limiting  clause 
in  his  letter  to  the  Secretary  of  January  3,  1834. 

To  bind  the  parties,  a  contract  was  entered  into  between 
John  Forsyth,  Secretary  of  State,  and  the  Hon.  George  C. 
Washington,  on  August  22,  1834,  for  the  sale  by  the  latter  of 
all  the  Washington  papers  described  in  the  clause  of  his  let- 
ter of  January  3,  1834.  The  part  of  the  contract  describing 
these  papers  and  their  extent  is  in  the  following  language : — 

The  said  George  C.  Washington  agrees  to  sell  and  deliver  to  the  said 
Secretary  of  State,  for  the  use  of  the  United  States,  all  the  papers  of  the 
late  General  George  Washington  of  which  he,  the  said  George  C.  Wash- 
ington, is  proprietor,  including  those  mentioned  in  the  lists  of  inventories 
furnished  from  time  to  time  to  the  Department  of  State  as  being  in  his 
own  possession,  and  those  which  are  in  the  possession  of  any  other  person 
or  persons,  more  especially  those  which  are  in  the  hands  of  the  Reverend 
Jared  Sparks ;  together  with  the  printed  books  referred  to  in  a  letter  ad- 
dressed by  the  said  George  C.  Washington  to  the  Secretary  of  State  on  the 
third  day  of  January  eighteen  hundred  and  thirty-four :  The  whole  of 
the  said  papers  and  books  to  be  delivered  forthwith  at  the  Department  of 
State  at  the  expense  of  the  said  George  C.  Washington  except  those  in  the 
possession  of  the  said  Jared  Sparks,  which  shall  be  delivered  without  de- 
lay to  the  order  of  the  Secretary  of  State,  who  agrees  to  permit  them 
to  remain  in  the  city  of  Boston  or  in  the  neighborhood  thereof  until  the 
close  of  the  next  session  of  Congress. 

(Document  signed  by)  JOHN  FORSYTH. 

G.  C.  WASHINGTON. 

Witnessed  by 

H.  O.  DAYTON. 

Hon.  JOHN  FORSYTH,  Secy,  of  State. 

SIR  :  I  have  completed  the  examination  and  arrangement  of  the  loose 
files  of  the  Washington  papers  in  the  Department,  and  have  delivered  to 
Mr.  Blake  thirty-seven  volumes,  to  be  bound  as  you  directed. 

The  papers  .have  been  classed  and  arranged  so  as  to  conform  as  nearly  as 
possible  to  the  various  subjects  they  embrace,  keeping  each  class  distinct 
and  generally  in  chronological  order.  They  consist  of— 

1.  Arrangements  of  officers,  &c.,  by  States  in 8  volumes. 

2.  Resignations  of  officers,  by  States 7        " 

3.  Oaths  of  allegiance 2        " 

4.  Regimental  returns 3        '* 

5.  Brigade  returns,  &c 1        " 

6.  Reports  of  guards 1        " 

7.  Inspection  returns 1        " 

8.  Q,  M.  generals  returns 1        " 


90  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

9.  Clothing  returns 1  volume. 

10.  Provision  returns 4        " 

11.  Returns  of  military  stores 4         " 

12.  Pay  and  hospital  returns 1         " 

13.  Special  returns,  &c.,  on  various  subjects 3         " 

There  are,  besides,  a  number  of  letters  to  Gen.  Washington,  from  the 

Presidents  of  Congress,  and  Various  public  officers,  that  probably  belong 
to  the  bound  volumes  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Sparks ;  these  have  been 
laid  aside  to  be  put  in  their  proper  places,  when  the  books  are  delivered  to 
the  Department. 

There  are.  also,  several  bundles  of  papers  that  relate  to  the  present 
Government :  they  have  not  been  put  up  with  those  of  the  Revolution,  but, 
if  you  should  so  decide,  can  easily  be  added  to  them. 
I  have  the  honour  to  be,  very  respectfully,  &c. 

PETER  FORCE. 

WASHINGTON,  September  23,  1834. 

As  the  memory  of  Jared  Sparks  must  forever  be  associated 
with  his  labors  on  the  writings  of  Washington,  the  following 
letter  from  him  to  the  Hon.  George  C.Washington,  must  prove 
of  interest.  It  refers  to  the  unfortunate  permission  granted 
by  Justice  Bushrod  Washington  to  the  Eev.  William  Buel 
Sprague,  to  take  original  letters  of  Washington's  from  the  files 
at  Mount  Vernon,  x>rovided  he  would  leave  copies  of  them  in 
their  stead.  In  181  fi,  Mr.  Sprague  was  a  private  tutor  in  the 
family  of  Maj.  Lawrence  Lewis,  who  had  married  Nellie Custis, 
and  resided  at  Wood  Lawn,  an  estate  given  him  by  Gen.  Wash- 
ington. The  number  of  letters  so  taken  is  stated  to  have  been 
1,500.  (See  Winsor's  Narrative  and  Critical  History  of  Amer- 
ica, Vol.  viiiy  p.  417. 

CAMBRIDGE,  September  20, 1836. 

DEAR  SIR  :  Some  time  after  the  Washington  papers  came  into  my  hands, 
the  Revd.  Dr.  Sprague,  of  Albany,  obtained  permission  to  select  certain 
autographs,  on  condition  that  he  should  leave  a  fair  copy  of  each  paper  he 
took.  These  copies  are  bound  in  the  volumes  according  to  their  dates. 

I  mention  this  circumstance  that  in  case  any  remarks  should  be  made 
about  the  copies,  it  need  not  be  thought  that  I  have  taken  any  improper 
liberties  with  the  papers.  The  autographs  were,  of  course,  taken  by  Dr. 
Spragne  before  the  papers  were  purchased  by  Congress ;  nor  is  it  known 
to  me  that  any  were  taken  without  leaving  copies.  The  permission  was 
granted  to  Dr.  Sprague  by  Judge  Washington. 
J  am,  sir,  respectfully  and  truly  yours. 

JARED  SPARKS. 
Col.  WASHINGTON. 

The  Department  of  State  expected  that  by  this  purchase  the 
Government  would  come  into  possession  of  all  of  General 
Washington's  papers  with  the  exception  of  those  of  a  purely 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          91 

personal  and  private  character.  This  reservation,  up  to  the 
delivery  and  examination  of  the  papers,  had  seemed  to  the  offi- 
cials to  be  of  little  consequence.  The  letter  of  the  historian, 
Jared  Sparks,  to  Mr.  Washington  of  February  23,1835,  already 
given  on  the  subject  of  the  diary  makes  it  evident  that  he  too 
looked  upon  these  volumes  of  the  diary  as  coming  within  the 
class  of  private  papers,  and  fully  justifying  the  classification 
of  reserved  papers  made  by  Mr.  Washington. 

GEORGE  TOWN,  Dec.  24th,  1838. 
Hon.  JOHN  FORSYTH  : 

SIR  :  I  owe  an  apology  for  not  sooner  answering  your  letter,  in  relation 
to  the  papers  purchased  of  me  by  the  Government.  Absence  from  the  Dis- 
trict during  part  of  the  time  and  a  great  pressure  of  engagements  and 
duties  when  in  it,  have  operated  to  prevent  me  from  sooner  replying.  I 
have  been  desirous  strictly  to  comply  with  the  understanding  between  the 
Secretary  of  State,  Congress  and  myself  &  with  the  conditions,  on  which 
I  consented,  that  the  papers  of  Gen1.  Washington  should  be  deposited  in  the 
archives  of  the  Nation. 

In  compliance,  I  have  delivered  all  the  papers  which  were  in  the  hands  of 
Judge  Washington  at  his  death,  or  which  had  been  placed  by  him  in  charge 
of  Mr.  Sparks,  with  the  exception  of  some  papers  of  a  private  character, 
which  were  expressly  reserved.  Some  autographs  were  taken  by  permis- 
sion of  Judge  Washington  &  copies  substituted,  as  you  will  perceive  by 
the  enclosed  copy  of  a  letter  to  me  from  Mr.  Sparks.  This  occurred  before 
I  had  any  control  of  the  papers,  but  as  I  understand,  they  were  of  but 
little  importance,  their  value  consisting  in  being  in  the  hand-writing  of 
Gen1.  Washington. 

I  beg  leave  to  refer  you  to  the  correspondence  between  Mr.  McLane  and 
myself  on  file  in  the  State  Department.  On  the  10th  of  Decr,  1833,  he  ad- 
dressed to  me  a  letter,  desiring  to  be  informed  if  1  would  consent  to  dis- 
pose of  Gen1.  Washington's  papers  to  the  Government  and  wishing  to 
know  my  terms.  I  replied  on  the  3rd  of  Jan?  following  and  invite  your 
attention  to  an  extract  from  that  letter — "I  am  willing  that  the  Govern- 
ment shall  possess  all  the  papers  of  a  general  character  or  in  any  manner 
connected  with  the  Colonial,  revolutionary  and  political  history  of  the 
Country,  only  reserving  such  as  are  of  a  private  nature,  or  which  it  would 
be  obviously  improper  to  make  public."  And  again — "  I  cannot  name  a 
specific  sum,  as  an  equivalent,  but,  confiding  in  the  liberality  of  the  Gov- 
ernment, I  am  willing  to  enter  into  such  arrangement  as  may  be  mutually 
satisfactory;  in  which  event,  I  will  transfer  forthwith  to  the  Government 
my  title  to  the  papers,  with  the  reservation  before  mentioned;  to  be  de- 
livered as  soon  as  practicable  after  the  publication  above  alluded  to 
(Spark's). 

This  correspondence  was  referred  to  the  Committee  of  Foreign  Relations 
of  the  House  of  Reps.,  which  reported  the  bill  as  passed  by  Congress 
without  requiring  any  modification  of  my  terms. 

The  whole  amount  of  papers  retained  by  me  under  the  reservation  re- 
ferred to,  are  contained  in  a  small  drawer,  and  are  strictly  private,  being 


92  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

principally  letters  to  members  of  the  family,  or  to  persons  on  business  ; 
and  I  find  by  the  endorsement,  that  even  a  majority  of  them  are  recorded 
in  the  letter  booKS,  handed  over  to  the  Department  &  those  which  are 
bound  do  not  relate  to  his  public  life. 

I  will  now  notice  the  papers  stated  to  be  missing,  in  the  order  presented 
by  the  memorandum,  accompanying  your  letter. 

No.  1.  Vol.  in,  Orderly  Book.  This  volume  is  noticed  in  Mr.  Sparks's 
rec1.  to  Judge  Washington  as  missing  &  it  is  supposed  never  came  into 
his  possession. 

No.  2.  Two  vols.  lettered  "  Miscellaneous "  being  private  papers,  <fc 
having  no  connexion  with  his  public  life. 

No.  3.  Diary  of  Washington  are  records  of  daily  and  private  transac- 
tions, kept  in  almanacks,  of  the  same  character  is  the  diary  of  a  journey 
over  the  Mountains  in  1770. 

No.  4.  Two  books  of  invoices  &  letters  on  business  with  his  agents  in 
London,  prior  to  the  Revolution. 

No.  5.  I  am  informed  by  Mr.  Weaver  and  Col.  Force,  that  most  of  the 
papers  under  this  item  of  your  memorandum,  stated  to  be  missing,  have 
been  found  and  are  in  the  Department.  If  any  of  a  public  character  are 
deficient  they  must  have  been  lost  before  they  came  into  the  possession  of 
Judge  Washington  or  during  his  life  time,  as  all  such  papers  found  by  me 
at  Mount  Vernon,  or  returned  by  Mr.  Sparks  have  been  delivered  by  me 
to  the  Government. 

No.  6.  I  have  no  knowledge  of  any  original  letters  or  other  papers  hav- 
ing been  taken  from  the  bound  Volumes,  other  than  as  accounted  for  by 
Mr.  Sparks  in  his  letter  to  me  on  the  subject,  a  copy  of  which  is  enclosed, 
with  the  exception  of  the  correspondence  between  Gen1.  Washington  and 
John  Nicholas,  in  relation  to  an  anonymous  letter  addressed  to  the 
former  over  the  signature  of  John  Langhorne.  As  this  correspondence 
deeply  implicates  the  conduct  of  a  distinguished  individual  of  that  day  in 
the  transaction,  I  deem  it  advisable,  to  withhold  it  from  the  public,  as  no 
possible  good  could  result  from  its  exhibition.  By  reference  to  my  letter 
to  Mr.  McLane  of  the  3d  Jany.,  1834,  you  will  observe,  that  I  reserved  the 
right  of  retaining  such  papers,  as  "it  would  be  obviously  improper  to 
make  public."  The  correspondence  between  Gen1.  Washington  and  Mr. 
Nicholas,  I  considered  as  of  that  character,  nor  was  I  then  aware  that  Mr. 
Sparks  had  published  any  portion  of  it — I  find,  however,  that  he  has  not 
published  the  entire  correspondence,  some  of  the  letters  suppressed,  being 
of  the  parcel  retained  by  me.  I  still  entertain  doubts  as  to  the  propriety 
of  placing  them  iu  the  Department,  but  on  the  fullest  reflection  have  con- 
cluded, to  submit  them  to  your  inspection,  to  be  retained  or  returned  to 
me  as  you  may  deem  most  proper.  They  now  accompany  this  communi-- 
cation. 

Mr.  Sparks,  it  is  true,  collated  largely  from  the  private  as  well  as  public 
papers  of  Gen1.  Washington  &  this  ho  had  a  perfect  right  to  do,  under 
his  contract  with  Judge  Washington,  but  I  do  not  conceive  that  his  giv- 
ing publicity  to  them  can  in  any  manner  affect  my  right  in  the  few  private 
papers  retained  by  me,  which  it  would  not  have  become  me  to  part  with 
for  any  pecuniary  consideration,  &  were  therefore  expressly  reserved. 

The  amount  paid  by  the  Government  for  the  immense  mass  of  papers  de- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          93 

posited  in  the  State  Department,  was  far  short  of  their  value,  &  the  pur- 
chase  money  has  already  been  more  than  reimbursed,  by  the  evidences 
these  papers  have  afforded,  by  which  many  fraudulent  claims  for  large 
amounts  on  the  Government,  have  been  defeated.  I  have  the  Copy  of  a  letter 
from  Mr.  Dickens  to  Mr.  Archer  of  the  H.  of  R8.,  dated  4th  June,  1834,  stat- 
ing that  even  at  that  day  &  before  access  was  had  to  the  papers  in  Mr. 
Sparks's  hands,  the  evidence  afforded  by  the  Washington  papers  in  my  pos- 
session had,  in  one  instance,  saved  to  the  Government  the  sum  of  $9,618, 
and  in  another  case  a  much  larger  amount. 

I  am,  very  respectfully,  Your  Obfc.  Serv*., 

Ge.  WASHINGTON. 

As  time  elapsed,  a  more  accurate  knowledge  of  the  deficien- 
cies of  the  Government  Records  and  the  importance  of  the 
papers  reserved  by  Mr.  George  C.  Washington,  in  the  sale  of 
Gen.  George  Washington's  papers  to  the  United  States  in 
1834,  led  the  Department  of  State  in  1849  to  make  proposals  to 
buy  the  remaining  papers,  with  the  approval  of  Mr.  Washing- 
ton. A  clause  was,  therefore,  at  the  instance  of  the  Secretary 
of  State,  inserted  in  the  general  appropriation  bill,  which  was 
approved  March  3,  1849,  as  follows : — 

And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  the  sum  of  twenty  thousand  dollars  be, 
and  the  same  is,  hereby  appropriated,  to  be  paid  out  of  any  monies  in  the 
Treasury,  not  otherwise  appropriated,  to  enable  the  Secretary  of  State  to 
purchase  the  remaining  manuscript,  books  and  papers  of  General  George 
Washington,  the  said  books  and  papers  to  be  deposited  and  preserved 
in  the  Department  of  State. 

The  following  is  the  schedule  of  the  papers,  and  a  certificate 
that  they  were  delivered  to  the  Department,  and  that  they 
agreed  with  the  contract,  and  also  an  extract  from  the  article 
of  agreement,  on  the  part  of  Mr.  George  0.  Washington,  to  sell 
and  convey  the  papers  indicated  to  the  Government. 

Schedule  of  the  papers  of  General   Washington  in  the  possession  of  Geo.  C. 

Washington. 

1st  vol.  Miscellaneous — containing  transcripts  in  his  handwriting  at 
from  10  to  13  years  of  age,  of  various  legal  instruments  and  forms,  20  pages. 
Rules  of  good  behaviour  at  same  age,  20  pages.  His  cyphering  book  at  13 
years  old,  178  pages. 

List  of  polls  at  various  elections  when  he  was  a  candidate  for  the  house 
of  Burgesses  of  Virginia,  130  pages. 

Also  act.  of  expense*,  crops  made,  correspondence,  list  of  his  lands, 
affairs  of  Truro  parish,  being  a  member  and  vestryman  of  that  church  for 
many  years. 

2d  vol.  Miscellaneous— containing  notes  and  observations  by  General 
Washington,  together  with  a  large  and  curious  collection  of  matter  relat- 
ing to  various  subjects.  This  vol.  contains  520  pages. 


94  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

3d  vol.  Correspondence,  invoices,  find  in  his  handwriting,  from  Oct., 
1754,  to  Sept.,  1766.  376  pages. 

4th  vol.  Correspondence,  invoices,  &c.,  &c.,  principally  in  his  hand 
writing,  from  1766  to  1775,  257  pages. 

5th  vol.  Ledger  of  General  Washington,  with  index  embracing  22  years, 
from  1750  to  1772,  378  pages. 

Diary  of  General  Washington,  in  14  books,  commencing  with  the  year 
1760  and  closing  in  June  19,  1775. 

The  diary  for  several  years  is  headed,  "  When,  how,  and  with  whom  my 
time  is  spent."  The  first  diary  previous  to  the  revolution  closes  the  19th 
June,  1775,  when  he  took  command  of  the  Revolutionary  army.  Two  pre- 
vious to  this  date  are  missing  for  the  years  1762-67. 

The  diary  recommences  after  the  war  on  the  1st  of  Jan.,  1785,  and  of 
these  there  are  12  books  and  complete  to  1787.  If  these  diaries  were  regu- 
larly continued  after  1788  thej  did  not  come  into  the  possession  of  G.  C. 
Washington,  who,  in  addition  to  the  above,  has  the  diary  commencing  10th 
Feb.,  1799,  and  closing  the  13th  Dec.  of  the  same  year.  This  diary  u 
endorsed  by  the  late  Judge  Washington  as  follows :  li  This  paper  probably 
contains  the  last  words  that  General  Washington  committed  to  writing — 
on  the  night  of  the  13th  (Dec.,  1799)  he  was  attacked  by  the  disease  of 
which  he  died."  2  books  of  field  notes  and  surveys  made  by  himself,  be- 
tween the  ages  of  17  and  19,  for  various  persons.  Books  of  his  expenses 
while  at  convention  for  forming  the  Constitution  in  1787.  1  book,  journal 
of  his  tour  over  the  mountains  in  1747,  youthful  letters,  memorandums,  &c. 
Journal  of  General  Washington  to  the  South  in  1791.  Cash  memorandum 
books,  8  manuscripts,  in  his  hand,  of  extracts  and  observations  from  works 
on  agriculture,  &c.  1  book  of  precedents,  adapted  to  the  laws  and  con- 
stitution of  Virginia,  with  several  legal  forms  in  his  handwriting  when  a 
youth.  2  journals  in  1781.  1  journal  of  a  journey  over  the  mountains  in 
1784.  1  book  of  experiments  and  observations.  1  journal  of  his  voyage 
to  Barbadoes  in  1751  (a  fragment).  Diplomas  and  Honorary  distinctions 
conferred  on  him  by  American  and  foreign  Literary  Institutions  and  So- 
cieties. 

An  interesting  letter  book  in  1755,  relating  to  Braddock's  campaign,  &c. 

Autograph  letters  from  General  Washington  on  war  subjects. 

Autograph  letters  to  General  Washington. 

This  schedule  is  endorsed  by  Lund  Washington,  jun.,  after  an  examina- 
tion of  the  papers  and  books,  and  comparing  them  with  the  list  and  find- 
ing them  correct  and  agreeing,  March  13th,  1849. 

Now  be  it  known  that  I  George  C.  Washington,  for  and  in  consideration 
of  the  premises,  and  the  said  same  twenty  thousand  Dollars  to  me  in  hand 
paid  by  the  United  States,  the  receipt  of  which  is  hereby  acknowledged, 
have  bargained,  sold  and  delivered,  and  do  bargain,  sell  and  deliver  to 
the  United  States  of  America,  all  the  said  manuscript  books  and  papers  of 
the  said  General  George  Washington  of  which  I  am  in  my  own  right,  solely 
possessed,  together  with  all  right,  copyright,  title,  and  interest  to  and  in 
the  same.  To  have  and  to  hold  all  the  said  remaining  manuscripts,  books 
and  papers  to  the  said  United  States  and  to  their  own  use  and  behalf  for- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          95 

ever.     In  witness  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  affixed  my  hand  and  seal  this 
13th  day  of  March,  1849. 

G.  C.  WASHINGTON. 
In  presence  of 

LUND  WASHINGTON,  Jr. 
WM.  C.  ZANTZINGER. 

In  addition  to  the  books  and  papers  which  were  inherited 
by  the  Hon.  G.  0.  Washington  from  his  uncle,  Justice  Bush- 
rod  Washington,  it  will  be  observed  that  there  existed  a  con- 
siderable number  of  books  at  Mount  Vernon,  which  the  last 
named  left  by  the  thirteenth  item  in  his  will  to  his  nephew, 
John  Augustine  Washington,  to  whom  he  also  left  the  Mount 
Vernon  mansion  and  plantation, in  the  words  following : — "The 
books  in  the  cases  in  the  dining-room,  I  give  to  my  nephew 
John  A.  Washington."  (See  will  of  Bushrod  Washington.) 

This  collection,  or  rather  a  part  of  it,  was  sold  in  1849. 
W.  F.  Poole,  now  the  librarian  of  the  Newberry  Library  in 
Chicago,  in  referring,  in  1872,  to  this  purchase  in  a  paper  on 
''Anti-slavery  opinion  before  the  year  1800,"  states  it  "had 
about  twelve  hundred  titles;  of  which,  four  hundred  and 
fifty  are  bound  volumes  and  seven  hundred  and  fifty  are 
pamphlets  and  unbound  serials."  This  collection  was  sold  to  Mr. 
Henry  Stevens,  of  London,  who  at  one  time  designed  placing 
them  in  the  British  Museum.  They  were  brought  to  New  York 
for  shipment  and  a  more  careful  packing  than  they  had  received 
at  Mount  Vernon.  While  in  New  York  they  attracted  the  at- 
tention of  some  public-spirited  gentlemen  of  Boston,  who 
bought  the  collection  and  presented  them  to  the  "Boston 
Athenaeum"  where  they  are  kept  intact  in  cases  designated 
"  The  Library  of  George  Washington."  Mr.  Poole  further  says 
that  Mr.  Livermore,  as  discretionary  executor  of  the  estate  of 
Thomas  Dowse,  the  "  literary  leather-dresser,"  of  Cambridge, 
added  to  the  gift  $1,000  for  the  purpose  of  printing  a  descrip- 
tive catalogue  of  the  collection,  which  we  infer  has  not  yet 
been  done,  for  Mr.  C.  A.  Cutter,  the  librarian  of  the  Athenaeum, 
wrote  me  in  January,  1893:  "This  library  has  never  published 
any  separate  catalogue  of  the  Washington  collection." 

A  sale  of  indubitable  Washington  manuscript  and  other 
relics,  descending  through  heirs  by  will  was  made  to  the  State 
of  New  York.  These  have  the  following  history  and  line  of 
regular  devise. 

The  Hon.  George  C.  Washington,  already  referred  to,  in 
making  his  own  will  left  all  his  real  estate  and  personal  prop- 


96  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

erty  to  his  wife,  saving  and  excepting  his  papers  which  he  left 
to  his  son  and  only  living  child,  Lewis  William  Washington, 
in  the  following  words : — 

Item — I  give  to  ray  son  Lewis  W.  Washington  all  my  papers,  other  than 
those  relating  to  my  private  business,  which  I  desire  my  said  wife  to  retain. 
I  also  give  to  ray  son,  Lewis  W.  Washington  the  sword  of  Gen'l  George 
Washington,  devised  to  me  by  my  father,  and  also  the  sword  and  pistol 
(one  [of]  them  being  lost)  of  the  said  Gen'l  Washington,  devised  to  me  by 
my  uncle,  Justice  Bushrod  Washington.  Item — I  give  to  my  son  Lewis 
my  law  books,  public  documents,  and  such  other  portion  of  my  library  as 
my  wife  may  not  wish  to  retain.  Item — To  my  grandson  James  (Barroll) 
I  give  my  watch  and  the  gold  chain  and  seal  which  belonged  to  and  were 
used  by  General  George  Washington.  (See  will  of  G.  C.  Washington  on 
record  at  Eockville,  Montgomery  County,  Maryland.) 

Col.  Lewis  William  Washington,  who  inherited  these  private 
papers  from  his  father,  George  C.  Washington,  resided  on  a 
beautiful  plantation,  "  Belle  Air,  n  at  Halltown,  near  Harper's 
Ferry,  Jefferson  County,  W.  Va.  He  was  born  in  1812,  was 
married  twice,  and  died  October  1, 1871.  By  his  first  wife,  he 
had  one  son  and  two  daughters;  and  by  the  last,  one  surviving 
child,  a  son. 

Negotiations  for  the  sale  to  the  State  of  New  York  of  some 
papers  and  memorial  relics  of  Gen.  George  Washington 
which  came  to  Col.  Lewis  William  Washington  from  his  father 
George  Corbin,  who  inherited  them  from  Justice  Bushrod 
Washington  as  already  detailed  were  begun  with  the  officials 
of  the  State  of  New  York  and  an  appropriation  for  their  pur- 
chase passed  by  the  legislature  of  that  State  April  20,  1871,  in 
an  act  called  the  "  supply  bill "  in  the  following  terms: — 

To  Mrs.  Lewis  W.  Washington,  of  Halltown,  West  Virginia,  the  sum  of 
twenty  thousand  dollars,  or  so  much  thereof  as  may  be  necessary  for  the 
purchase  of  certain  relics  of  General  Washington,  offered  by  her  to  the 
State,  to  be  paid  only  upon  the  certificate  of  Martin  Grover  and  the  Chan- 
cellor of  the  University  and  J.  Carson  Brevoort,  that  said  relics  are  in  their 
opinion  genuine,  and  that  it  is  desirable  in  their  judgment  that  they 
should  be  placed  in  the  museum  of  the  State  Library. 

The  articles  are  numbered  and  listed  as  follows,  in  the  An- 
nual report  of  the  New  York  State  Library  for  the  year  1873 : 

1.  First  draft  of  the  Farewell  address,  May,  1796. 

2.  Opinions  of  the  surviving  Generals  of  the  Revolution,  1791. 

3.  Tabulated  statement  of  household  expenses,  1789. 

4.  Dress  sword  of  Washington. 

5.  Pistol,  a  present  from  Gen.  Lafayette. 

6.  Gold  watch-chain  and  two  seals. 

7.  Box  of  surveying  instrument*. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.         97 

8.  Case  of  pocket  protracting  instruments. 

9.  Compass  made  by  D.  Rittenhouse,  Philadelphia. 

10.  Tripod,  called  in  the  original  list,  Jacob's  staff. 

11.  Measuring  chain — small. 

12.  Measuring  chain — large. 

13.  Six  marking  pins  (surveyor's). 

14.  Volume  of  costumes  of  British  army,  1742. 

The  last  notable  sale  of  books,  which  once  had  formed  a  part 
of  the  library  of  Gen.  Washington  at  Mount  Yernon,  and  which 
passed  by  the  wills  of  the  General  and  also  of  Justice  Washing- 
ton to  John  Augustine,  was  a  considerable  lot,  which  had  not 
been  offered  or  sold  to  Mr.  Henry  Stevens  in  1849. 

The  war  between  the  States  left  most  of  the  previously 
well-to-do  Southern  people  in  very  straitened  pecuniary 
circumstances,  which  caused  them  to  part  with  many  highly- 
prized  family  relics.  Such  was  the  case  with  the  heirs  of  the 
second  John  Augustine  Washington,  who  still  owned  some  of 
the  books  belonging  to  the  original  Mount  Yernon  collection, 
and  which  had  been  reserved  from  all  former  sales.  Those 
were  now  collected  together  and  sent  to  Philadelphia  during 
the  Centennial  Exposition  of  1876,  and  were  there  catalogued 
and  sold  as  a  part  of  Gen.  Washington's  library.  Many  of 
the  books  had  the  General's  autograph  in  them.  While  the 
books  attracted  much  attention,  they  brought  lower  prices 
than  the  same  books  would  command  at  the  present  day. 

While  it  is  true  that  there  have  been  other  sales  than  those 
here  referred  to,  at  which  genuine  literary  remains  and  other 
memorials  of  Gen.  Washington  have  been  disposed  of,  yet 
few  other  considerable  lots,  so  accurately  identified  by  un- 
broken successions  of  devises,  are  known  to  the  writer. 

In  this  hasty  review  of  Washington's  literary  remains  and 
estimate  of  its  character  and  extent,  it  is  intended  to  compre- 
hend not  only  his  letters,  private  and  official,  with  their  drafts, 
but  his  Diary  and  also  memorandum  notes  and  observations 
and  accounts  of  every  description,  whether  written  by  his  own 
hand  or  by  a  secretary  at  his  direction.  Every  scrap  of  a 
written  record  of  this  great  man  of  destiny  has  its  value  to  the 
student  of  history  and  is  deserving  of  preservation. 

The  Dinwiddie  papers,  which  cover  a  very  important  period 
in  the  colonial  history  of  Yirginia,  are  rich  in  early  autographic 
letters.  These  were  bought  in  London,  in  1881,  from  Henry 
Stevens,  by  our  most  noted  philanthropist  of  Washington  city, 
Willianl  W.  Corcoran,  and  presented  to  the  Yirginia  Histor- 
S.  Mis.  57 7 


98  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

ical  Society.  To  this  valuable  gift  he  added  a  fund,  which 
enabled  its  accomplished  secretary,  R.  A.  Brock,  to  edit  and 
publish  these  important  historical  papers  in  two  handsome 
volumes.  The  Virginia  Historical  Register,  begun  in  1848, 
gave  to  the  public  many  original  Washington  letters  addressed 
to  the  executive  and  officers  of  the  State  of  Virginia,  and  also 
letters  addressed  to  Col.  George  Baylor  and  others.  The 
Southern  Literary  Messenger,  also,  from  time  to  time,  published 
letters  of  Gen.  Washington.  These  and  other  manuscripts 
possessed  by  that  society,  and  the  valued  autographs  of  Wash- 
ington's early  correspondence  with  the  Provincial  Government 
stored  in  the  State  library  and  the  Land  office  at  Richmond, 
and  among  county  surveyor's  records,  with  the  numerous  collec- 
tions, large  and  small,  owned  by  citizens  in  different  parts 
of  the  State,  readily  place  Virginia  at  the  head  of  all  the  States 
in  the  possession  of  Washington's  literary  remains.  Of  course, 
we  always  except  the  collections  owned  by  the  United  States 
Government  as  the  largest  and  most  complete.  Within  the 
last  couple  of  years  there  has  appeared  in  the  hands  of  auto- 
graph-dealers of  New  York  several  hundred  certified  returns 
of  surveys  with  plats  made  along  about  1750, 1751,  and  1752  in 
the  handwriting  of  George  Washington.  These  had  doubtless 
been  surreptitiously  taken  from  the  records  of  the  counties  in 
the  Valley  of  Virginia,  to  which  they  had  been  returned  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  law  made  and  provided  for  the  government 
of  licensed  surveyors.  It  is  thus  evident  Virginia  is  still  being 
despoiled  of  her  treasures. 

The  Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  as  early  as  1794,  came 
into  possession  by  gift  from  the  heirs  of  Governor  Jonathan 
Trumbull,  of  Connecticut,  of  a  very  extensive  and  valuable 
collection  of  historical  and  official  papers  made  by  that  states- 
man during  his  long  and  active  public  life.  The  papers  were 
in  good  order,  and  cover  the  whole  period  of  the  War  of 
Independence,  of  which  he  was  a  prominent  and  efficient  pro- 
moter. Among  these  papers  are  many  autograph  letters  of 
Gen.  Washington,  who  had  frequent  occasion  to  write  to  the 
executive  of  Connecticut.  These  letters  of  the  Commander- 
in-Chief  to  Governor  Trumbull  have  been  published  by  the 
Massachusetts  Historical  Society  and  form  Volume  n  of  the 
Trumbull  papers  and  Volume  x  of  the  Fifth  Series  of  that  so- 
ciety's collection. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.          99 

The  Long  Island  Historical  Society  is  the  fortunate  owner 
of  many  autograph  letters  and  papers  of  Gen.  Washington. 
They  were  mainly  bought  by  the  Hon.  Edward  Everett  from 
the  family  or  descendants  of  William  Pearce,  to  whom  these  let- 
ters were  addressed.  He  had  been  for  some  years  Washing- 
ton's farm  manager  at  Mount  Vernon.  Upon  the  death  of  Mr. 
Everett,  they  were  sold  to  the  late  James  Carson  Brevoort, 
who  presented  them  to  the  Long  Island  Historical  Society. 
These  papers  have  been  carefully  edited  by  Moncure  D.  Con- 
way,  with  valuable  biographical  and  historical  notes,  and 
form  a  good-sized  volume  under  the  title  of  "George  Washing- 
ton and  Mount  Vernon ;"  being  Volume  IV  of  that  society's  pub- 
lications. 

The  New  Hampshire  Historical  Society  has  published  a 
goodly  number  of  letters  written  by  Gen.  Washington  to 
Meshech  Weare,  governor  of  New  Hampshire,  and  to  other  offi- 
cials during  the  war  of  the  Eevolution. 

I  have  no  means  of  knowing  what  other  autograph  material 
of  the  General  there  may  be  in  the  office  of  the  secretary 
of  state  or  the  state  library  of  New  Hamsphire. 

Sparks,  the  biographer  of  Washington,  in  1826  found  in  the 
office  of  the  secretary  of  state  of  New  Hampshire  fifty-eight 
letters  of  Gen.  Washington.  Where  are  they  now? 

It  is  known  as  a  fact  that  two  people  who  had  been  the  re- 
cipients of  many  autograph  letters  from  Gen.  Washington,  writ- 
ten in  the  fullest  freedom  which  confidence  and  affection  had 
established,  were  destroyed  by  the  persons  to  whom  they  were 
addressed  or  by  their  explicit  direction. 

I  refer  to  the  letters  Gen.  Washington  wrote  to  his  wife, 
and  those  he  wrote  to  his  manager  and  kinsman,  Lund  Wash- 
ington. However  much  we  may  blame  or  regret  this  de- 
struction, both  supposed  they  were  doing  a  meritorious  ser- 
vice and  honoring  the  memory  of  Washington.  The  fact 
that  Mrs.  Washington  destroyed  the  letters  she  had  received 
from  the  General,  as  well  as  hers  to  him,  rests  upon  the  tes- 
timony of  her  granddaughter,  Mrs.  Peter,  who  was  cognizant 
of  the  fact. 

The  destruction  of  the  letters  written  to  Lund  Washington 
by  the  General  rests  upon  the  statement  of  Mr.  Foot,  the 
nephew  and  adopted  son  of  Lund  Washington,  who  informed 
Mr.  Sparks  that  near  the  close  of  life  Lund  Washington  in- 
structed his  wife  to  destroy  all  the  letters  he  had  received  from 


100  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

the  General.  This  instruction  was  carried  out  as  far  as  it  was 
in  her  power. 

The  unwarranted  surmise  that  Tobias  Lear,  long  the  highly 
esteemed  private  secretary  of  Gen.  Washington,  and  who  was 
in  charge  of  the  GeneraFs  papers  at  the  time  of  his  death,  had 
abstracted  or  permitted  the  removal  of  autograph  letters  of 
Washington,  and  papers  which,  it  is  intimated,  might  have 
compromised,  in  some  manner,  Thomas  Jeiferson  is,  I  believe, 
without  a  veritable  sponser  or  any  trustworthy  testimony  upon 
which  to  rest. 

A  knowledge  of  the  safe  preservation  and  present  lodging- 
place  of  the  original  autographs  of  the  many  thousands  of  let- 
ters and  documents  written  by  George  Washington,  but  more 
especially  those  which  have  not  been  printed,  or  only  printed 
in  part,  interests  every  American  and  historical  student 
throughout  the  world.  The  want  of  a  calendar  and  a  reposi- 
tory of  these  scattered  treasures,  or  veritable  copies  of  them  in 
print  or  in  manuscript  where  they  might  be  consulted,  con- 
fronts every  inquirer  who  attempts  to  study  the  life  of  Gen. 
Washington  and  the  history  of  the  American  Revolution. 
Thus  far,  the  most  available  aid  in  this  direction  to  the  stu- 
dent has  been  Sparks's  collection  of  the  Writings  of  Washing- 
ton. 

As  a  slight  amplification  of  the  field,  beyond  this 
valuable  publication,  I  venture  brief  references  to  a  few  of 
the  many  personal  memoirs  which  contain  letters  of  Washing- 
ton not  readily  found  elsewhere. 

The  belief  is  quite  general  that  George  Washington  preserved 
complete  drafts  of  all  his  public  letters.  I  am  not  aware  that 
he  ever  made  or  authorized  such  a  statement;  yet  his  collec- 
tion proves  to  be  so  rich  in  these  drafts  as  to  give  some  credit 
to  this  notion.  However,  I  very  much  doubt  whether  an  ex- 
amination and  comparison  would  sustain  the  correctness  of  this 
belief.  Many  of  these  drafts  are  in  autograph,  others  seem- 
ingly made  from  dictation  are  in  the  handwriting  of  clerks ;  the 
latter  are  frequently  interlined  and  corrected  in  Washington's 
own  handwriting.  Madison's  collection  of  autograph  letters 
of  Washington  shows  over  twenty  of  which  no  copies  are  pre- 
served in  the  General's  files. 

The  earliest  letter-press  copies  of  Washington's  letters  that 
I  have  seen  are  of  1793.  The  historian,  who  desires  to  secure 
copies  of  all  of  Washington's  letters  can  not,  I  apprehend, 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.        101 

afford  to  rest  his  hopes  on  the  theory  that  duplicates  have 
been  preserved,  but  should  endeavor  to  obtain  copies  from 
originals  (that  is,  the  letter  sent)  wherever  and  whenever  they 
coine  to  his  notice;  besides,  the  letter  sent  has  often  been  found 
amplified  beyond  the  draft  and  transcript.  No  editor  of 
Washington's  writings  has  ever  pretended  to  do  more  than 
publish  selections  from  his  writings ;  it  is  doubtless  true  that 
no  important  letters  of  his  have  been  withheld,  and  it  is  uni- 
versally conceded  that  those  published  show  his  preeminence 
among  the  great  men  of  the  world.  Students  in  history 
welcome  any  publication  that  gives  original  letters  and  doc- 
uments complete  and  with  literal  accuracy. 

Among  the  preserved  early  memoirs  published  was  that  of 
Maj.  Gen.  William  Heath  in  1798.  He  introduced  a  number 
of  the  letters  which  he  had  received  from  Gen.  Washington  on 
military  matters. 

A  memoir  of  the  life  of  Eichard  Henry  Lee,  by  his  grandson, 
E.  H.  Lee,  published  in  1825,  contains  much  of  the  correspond- 
ence between  Gen.  Washington  and  this  great  patriot  of  the 
Eevolution.  These  letters  were  written  during  the  progress  of 
the  war  and  refer  only  to  military  and  public  affairs*  Doubt- 
less others  have  been  preserved  by  the  heirs  of  this  family,  of 
a  social  and  business  character,  written  during  Washington's 
youth  and  early  manhood,  to  Mr.  Lee,  who  was  his  esteemed 
friend  from  childhood. 

The  life  and  correspondence  of  Joseph  Eeed,  statesman  and 
soldier,  of  Philadelphia,  also  brought  many  letters  of  Gen. 
Washington  to  the  notice  of  the  public ;  giving  them  with  lit- 
eral accuracy. 

The  Marquis  de  Chastellux,  who  was  connected  with  the 
French  army  in  America  during  the  Eevolution,  in  a  volume 
of  his  travels  in  North  America,  published  in  Paris  in  1786, 
translated  into  English  and  issued  in  London  in  1787,  a  revised 
edition  of  which,  with  notes,  etc.,  was  published  in  1828,  gives 
quite  a  number  of  letters  which  this  worthy  Frenchman  had 
received  from  Gen.  Washington.  They  are  mainly  upon  mili- 
tary affairs,  entirely  characteristic  of  the  general  and  full  of 
interest. 

The  memoirs  of  Gen.  Lafayette,  in  six  volumes,  published  in 
Paris  in  1837,  contain  many  letters  from  Gen.  Washington,  as 
also  from  other  political  and  military  characters  in  the  United 
States.  He  had  kept  a  diary  or  journal  of  the  principal  events 


102  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

in  which  he  took  part  in  America,  so  that  his  account  of  affairs 
has  the  character  and  views  of  a  personal  actor.  It  is  probable 
that  he  had  in  his  possession  many  other  letters  from  the 
Commander- in- Chief  not  introduced  into  his  memoirs. 

The  papers  of  Gen.  Rochambeau,  now  in  the  Library  of  Con- 
gress, have  many  autograph  letters  of  Gen.  Washington,  and 
copies  of  many  others  in  French,  the  originals  having  been 
given  to  friends  and  autograph  collectors,  before  they  came 
into  the  possession  of  the  Government. 

The  careful  studies  which  have  been  given  to  the  volumi- 
nous writings  and  lives  of  John  Adams,  Benjamin  Franklin, 
Alexander  Hamilton,  Patrick  Henry,  Thomas  Jefferson  and 
James  Madison,  each  of  whom  were  influential  actors  in  the 
Eevolution  and  in  the  founding  of  the  American  Republic,  add 
much  to  our  historical  treasures,  but  the  methods  of  the  edi- 
tors did  not  afford  opportunities  to  introduce  many  of  the  let- 
ters of  Gen.  Washington. 

A  collection  of  Washington's  letters,  written  between  1781 
and  1783,  to  Brig.  Gen.  William  Irvine,  who  was  at  that  time 
intrusted  with  the  defenses  of  the  northwestern  frontier,  has 
been  carefully  edited  and  handsomely  printed  at  Madison, 
Wis.,  by  C.  W.  Butterfield.  The  original  Irvine  papers  from 
which  the  volume  was  prepared  are  now  in  the  possession  of 
the  Pennsylvania  Historical  Society. 

The  lives  and  public  services  of  a  number  of  patriots  and 
compatriots  with  Washington  in  the  armies  of  the  Re  volution, 
such  as  Philip  Schuyler,  Arthur  St.  Clair,  Henry  Knox,  Joseph 
Jones,  Henry  Lee,  Edmund  Randolph  and  many  other  conteni 
poraries  with  whom  the  General  was  on  terms  of  intimacy,  and 
between  whom  many  official  and  friendly  letters  passed,  have 
been  given  to  the  public  in  their  published  lives  and  memoirs. 

Marshall's  Life  of  Washington  presents  a  clear  exposition 
of  his  political  views,  and  gives  an  authentic  documetary  his- 
tory of  the  various  causes  and  acts  which  led  to  the  Ameri- 
ican  Revolution  and  the  independence  of  the  colonies,  and 
will  always  hold  high  rank  in  the  literature  of  the  subject, 
but  the  close  argumentative  methods  pursued  by  the  writer 
give  him  little  scope  for  introducing  original  letters  from  Wash- 
ington. 

The  greatest  storehouse  of  Washington  letters  and  re- 
corded papers,  for  the  majority  of  students,  is  the  collection 
given  to  the  public  by  that  ripe  scholar  and  able  historian, 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.         103 

Jared  Sparks.  No  fault  can  be  found  with  his  work,  except  as 
to  the  method  adopted,  which  was  the  fashion  of  his  time  and 
still  prevails,  to  select,  omit  and  dress  up  the  manuscript  to 
suit  the  taste  and  opinions  of  the  editor.  As  regards  a  com- 
prehensive knowledge  of  the  subject-matter  under  discussion, 
a  thorough  acquaintance  with  the  resources  of  the  country 
and  the  character,  ability  and  services  of  Washington  and  his 
associates,  no  writer  has  equaled,  much  less  excelled,  Sparks; 
nor  are  his  labors  likely  soon  to  be  superseded  or  displaced 
with  historical  students.  The  writings  of  Washington  now 
being  edited  by  Worthington  C.  Ford  give  some  desirable  let- 
ters not  to  be  found  in  Sparks,  while  he  omits  others  of  value 
given  by  that  editor.  Some  of  the  lives,  which  have  been 
published  of  George  Washington,  reflect  hasty  studies,  con- 
tracted views  and  personal  estimates  of  the  writers,  rather 
than  the  presentation  of  a  comprehensive  and  impartial  pic- 
ture of  Washington  as  he  was,  his  opinions  and  his  labors. 
It  is,  therefore,  desirable  and  all-important  that  writers  have 
access  to  original  documents  or  faithful  transcripts,  so  that 
all  his  recorded  acts  and  utterances  may  be  assembled  before 
students  without  curtailment,  augmentation,  or  distortion  of 
any  kind,  before  they  can  produce  a  true  history  of  the  life,  and 
properly  estimate  the  influence  of  George  Washington  upon  his 
country  and  constitutional  government. 

The  liberty  which  writers  have  taken  with  the  Washington 
manuscripts  in  giving  them  to  the  press,  makes  it  of  special 
interest  to  historians  to  know  where  the  originals  are,  and 
whether  they  exist  in  the  chirography  of  a  clerk  or  secretary, 
and  are  signed,  or  whether  they  are  entirely  in  the  General's 
handwriting;  and  whether  those  published  are  literal  tran- 
scripts of  an  original  autograph. 

With  no  complete  information  in  detail,  I  however  venture 
the  opinion  that  the  extent  of  the  autograph  material  pos- 
sessed by  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society  in  Boston  and 
the  various  public  institutions  of  Massachusetts  makes  that 
State  the  second  most  extensive  owner  of  these  autograph 
treasures. 

Two  volumes  selected  by  John  Gary,  LL.  D.,  from  the  official 
letters  of  George  Washington  written  to  the  American  Con- 
gress while  he  was  in  command  of  the  Continental  forces,  were 
published  in  London  in  1795  without  notes  or  an  editor's  name. 
The  same  work  was  printed  the  following  year  in  Boston,  and 


104  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

also  in  New  York.  The  publishers  contemplated  issuing  a 
third  volume,  but  this  was  not  consummated.  It  was  not 
deemed  prudent  by  the  Government  to  permit  all  of  the  Gen- 
eral's letters  on  military  affairs  and  papers  on  the  policy  of  the 
United  States  to  be  published  at  that  time,  so  that  this  selec- 
tion, though  an  important  contribution  toward  a  history  of  the 
Revolution,  represents  but  a  small  part  of  Washington's  let- 
ters and  suggestions  to  the  Continental  Congress. 

The  Historical  Society  of  Pennsylvania  largely  represents 
the  State  in  the  possession  of  the  Washington  autograph  ma- 
terial in  Pennsylvania.  This  institution  has  been  made  rich 
by  the  gifts,  from  time  to  time,  of  extensive  and  choice  private 
collections  of  literary  remains.  I  am  informed  the  collec- 
tion now  under  their  control  exceeds  four  hundred  autograph 
letters.  The  State  capital  not  being  situated  in  a  literary  or 
publishing  center,  historical  documents  naturally  gravitated 
to  the  historical  society  in  Philadelphia.  However,  many 
other  institutions  and  libraries,  public  and  private,  in  that 
city  possess  valuable  collections.  In  1826,  when  Jared  Sparks 
began  looking  up  and  copying  Washington's  papers,  he  found 
many  autograph  letters  of  the  General  in  the  office  of  the  gov- 
ernor of  the  State.  I  infer  from  an  interview  with  the  libra- 
rian that  these  letters  are  no  longer  on  file  there.  One  of  the 
letters  Sparks  describes  as  comprising  ten  folio  pages  in  auto- 
graph. 

The  State  of  Connecticut  ought  to  possess,  and  probably 
has  in  her  State  archives  and  public  institutions,  a  large  col- 
lection of  Washington's  letters,  for  there  were  in  that  Com- 
monwealth many  influential  public  characters  who  had  occa- 
sion to  write  to  the  commander- in-chief,  and  there  was  no 
executive  of  any  State  with  whom  the  General  of  the  Conti- 
nental army  corresponded  more  frequently  during  the  Revo- 
lution than  with  Governor  Trumbull. 

In  1848  the  legislature  of  New  Jersey  caused  to  be  pub- 
lished a  volume  of  selections  from  the  original  manuscripts 
and  letters  in  the  State  library  or  office  of  the  secretary  of 
State.  This  publication  is  entitled  "  Selections  from  the  cor- 
respondence of  the  Executive  of  New  Jersey  from  1776  to 
1786."  The  volume  contains  letters  from  many  eminent  polit- 
ical and  military  characters  not  easily  found  elsewhere.  Of 
the  twenty-six  letters  of  Washington  given,  but  six  appear  in 
Sparks. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.        105 

The  New  York  Historical  Society  and  the  State  Library 
have  each  fine  collections  of  original  letters  of  Gen.  Washing- 
ton. These  institutions  have  become  the  custodians  of  a  num- 
ber of  private  collections  of  historical  students  and  of  family 
papers,  many  of  them  containing  autograph  material  of  Gen. 
Washington,  some  of  which  have  been  printed  in  the  New 
York  Historical  Society's  publications. 

Without  attempting  to  enumerate  all  the  books  and  maga- 
zines in  which  letters  of  Washington  have  been  published, 
still  the  Magazine  of  American  History  is  conspicuous  from 
the  great  number  to  be  found  in  it.  The  interested  inquirer 
should  also  consult  Giles's  Eegister,  Harper's  Magazine,  The 
Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History  and  Biography,  Dawson's 
Historical  Magazine  and  other  publications  of  this  character. 

The  States  of  Maryland,  New  Hampshire,  New  Jersey, 
Ehode  Island,  Georgia,  Ohio,  Wisconsin  and  North  and  South 
Carolina  have  each  the  foundation  on  which  to  form  a  collec- 
tion of  Washington  letters.  The  Lenox  Library  in  New  York 
city  has  been  for  years  a  leading  buyer  of  choice  autograph 
Washington  letters  and  documents. 

There  are  many  gentlemen  of  wealth  and  culture  in  the  vari- 
ous sections  of  the  Union  who  possess  choice  libraries  and 
rich  collections  of  this  highly  prized  Washington  autographic 
material.  The  following  are  especially  worthy  of  mention,  as 
best  known  to  the  writer,  Messrs.  William  S.  Baker,  George 
W.  Childs,  Ferdinand  J.  Dreer,  Simon  Gratz  and  Charles 
Eoberts,  of  Philadelphia;  Dr.  Emmet  and  Mr.  Wm.  A.  Have- 
myer,  of  New  York;  and  Mr.  Gunther,  of  Chicago.  But  there 
are  doubtless  many  others. 

The  late  Joseph  W.  Drexel,  of  New  York,  a  quiet  collector 
of  rare  autographs,  had,  at  the  time  of  his  death,  a  complete 
set  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence  and  also 
of  the  signers  of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States.  He 
had  besides  in  his  collection  over  thirty  autograph  letters  of 
Washington,  and  a  plan  of  Mount  Vernon  drawn  by  Washing- 
ton's own  hand. 

A  very  valuable  collection  of  the  autograph  letters  owned 
by  the  estate  of  the  late  J.  C.  McGuire,  of  Washington,  D.  C., 
was  sold  in  December,  1892,  at  the  salesrooms  of  Birch's  Sons, 
auctioneers,  in  Philadelphia.  The  collection  was  extensively 
advertised  and  admirably  catalogued,  and  attracted  great 
attention  among  autograph  collectors,  historical  writers  and 
librarians. 


106  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

From  the  many  letters  by  Gen.  Washington,  it  is  (and  for  a 
long  time  to  come  will  be)  possible  to  buy  autograph  letters, 
as  they  emerge  from  hiding  places  among  old  family  papers, 
from  which  they  have  never  yet  been  separated.  From  this 
source  the  autograph  speculator  and  auctioneer  for  years  may 
be  able  to  make  more  or  less  notable  collections  and  catalogue 
sales. 

Vie  wing  Gen.  Washington's  autographic  and  literary  remains 
in  a  broad,  comprehensive  way,  and  knowing  that  they  are 
of  inestimable  value  to  a  thorough  study  of  his  life  and  the 
history  of  American  independence,  I  include  every  letter,  doc- 
ument and  paper  written  by  him  as  coming  under  this  designa- 
tion. It  is  presumed  that  autograph  letters  of  Gen.  Washing- 
ton were  more  carefully  preserved  by  those  who  received  them, 
and  more  prized  by  their  heirs  and  descendants  than  the  let- 
ters of  any  other  conspicuous  character  in  history.  To  the  end, 
therefore,  of  founding  a  central  and  national  depository  of 
Washington's  writings,  which  aims  to  assemble  and  to  pre- 
serve literal  copies  of  everything  he  ever  wrote,  to  be  open  and 
accessible  to  all  students,  the  writer  solicits  from  the  owners 
of  such  the  favor  of  accurate  copies  of  any  original  paper  writ- 
ten by  Gen.  Washington,  to  be  deposited  in  the  "  Toner  col- 
lection "  in  the  Library  of  Congress.  The  following  are  the 
names  of  some  families  and  public  characters  with  whom 
Washington  corresponded,  and  among  whose  descendants 
it  is  probable  that  there  may  be  lodged  many  important 
autograph  letters.  There  are  doubtless  many  other  families, 
not  thought  of  by  the  writer,  whose  descendants  may  have 
Washington  papers.  Many  persons,  as  a  security  against  acci- 
dents, have  already  deposited  their  Washington  letters  in 
State  or  public  libraries.  John  Adams,  John  Armstrong, 
Theodoric  Bland,  Daniel  Brodhead,  John  Cadwalader,  Bene- 
dict Calvert,  Edward  Carrington,  Charles  and  Daniel  Carroll, 
Laudon  Carter,  Archibald  and  Robert  Cary,  George  Clinton, 
Nicholas  Cooke,  Dr.  James  Craik,  William  Crawford,  Bar- 
tholomew Dandridge,  John  Dickinson,  Count  D'Estaing,  Will- 
iam, George  W.,  and  Bryan  Fairfax,  Benjamin  Franklin, 
Joshua  Fry,  Horatio  Gates,  William  Gordon,  William  Gray- 
son,  Nathanael  Greene,  Alexander  Hamilton,  John  Hancock, 
Edward  Hand,  Benjamin  and  R.  H.  Harrison,  Moses  Hazen, 
William  Heath,  Patrick  Henry,  Francis  Hopkinson,  Robert 
Howe  (N.  C.),  David  Humphreys,  William  Irvine,  John  Jay, 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.         107 

Thomas  Jefferson,  Thomas  Johnson,  Joseph  Jones,  Henry 
Knox,  Gen.  Lafayette,  John  Laurens,  Tobias  Lear,  Ben- 
jamin Lincoln,  Charles,  Henry  and  Richard  Henry  Lee, 
Robert  and  William  Livingston,  Alexander  McDougall,  James 
McHenry,  Allen  McLane.  James  Madison,  John  Marshall, 
George  Mason,  George,  John  and  Hugh  Mercer,  James  Mon- 
roe, Daniel  Morgan,  Gouverneur  and  Robert  Morris,  William 
Moultrie,  Thomas  Nelson,  Samuel  H.  Parsons,  Edmund  Pen- 
dleton,  Timothy  Pickering,  Charles  Cotesworth  and  Thomas 
Pinckney,  Israel  Putnam,  Edmund  Randolph,  Joseph  Reed, 
John  Robinson,  Edward  and  John  Rutledge,  Arthur  St. 
Clair,  John  Sinclair,  Philip  Schuyler,  Roger  Sherman,  Alex- 
ander Spotswood,  Adam  Stephen,  Lord  Stirling,  Baron 
Steuben,  David  Stuart,  John  Sullivan,  Benjamin  Talemadge, 
James,  Tench  and  William  Tilghman,  Jonathan  Trumbull, 
father  and  son,  Artemas  Ward,  James,  John  and  Joseph 
Warren,  Anthony  Wayne,  Meshech  Weare,  James  Wilson, 
John  Witherspoon,  Oliver  Wolcott,  James  Wood,  William 
Woodford  and  David  Wooster. 

To  this  list  might  be  added  hundreds  of  names  in  Virginia 
and  Maryland,  and  also  the  names  of  officers  of  rank  attached 
to  the  French  forces  cooperating  with  the  American  army  dur- 
ing the  Revolution,  as  well  as  the  commanders  of  the  British 
army  to  whom  Gen.  Washington  on  occasions  wrote  letters. 

At  different  times  since  the  principal  sales,  already  referred 
to,  of  Washington  relics,  other  minor  collections  of  autograph 
material,  though  how  severed  from  his  manuscript  collection 
and  by  what  devices  brought  together,  it  would  be  difficult  to 
state,  have  by  the  art  of  the  auctioneer  been  thrust  alluringly 
upon  the  market.  These  relics  of  the  "  father  of  our  country" 
would  indeed  seem  to  have  a  " Heavenly  grace"  about  them 
since  they  are  never  exhausted.  Thus  far  there  has  been  but 
little  fraud  practiced  upon  the  public  in  the  fabrication  of  what 
is  commonly  designated  "  genuine  Washington  relics."  It  is 
surmised,  however,  that  there  may  have  been  sold  a  few  more 
chairs,  tables,  sideboards,  fenders,  andirons,  plates,  table- 
ware, candlesticks,  etc.,  than  were  ever  at  Mount  Yernon,  but 
the  fad  is  progressive  and  will  doubtless  extend  to  autographic 
material.  The  attempt  some  years  ago  of  a  Washington  City 
dealer  in  second-hand  books  to  introduce  a  book  plate  in  imita- 
tion of  the  one  used  by  Gen.  Washington,  into  a  lot  of  old 
books,  to  impose  on  buyers  is  not  forgotten.  Although  that 


108  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

attempt  failed,  others  managed  with  greater  cunning  may  prove 
more  dangerous. 

The  descendants  of  most  of  Washington's  heirs  seem  to  have 
been  strangers  to  any  sentiment  or  feeling  of  sacredness  for 
articles  once  owned  by  the  General,  which  the  public  suppose 
they  naturally  would  attach  to  the  records,  books,  and  bric- 
a-brac  left  by  their  illustrious  kinsman.  This  defect  of  grati- 
tude and  want  of  due  appreciation  seem  almost  incomprehen- 
sible to  the  present  generation  of  patriotic  Americans,  and  yet 
this  was  more  or  less  apparent  from  the  time  of  the  General's 
death.  Neither  the  executors  nor  the  heirs  seem  ever  to  have 
entertained  other  than  a  commercial  idea  of  the  value  of  the 
immortal  Washington's  memorial  and  historic  treasures.  From 
the  various  sales  of  relics  that  have  taken  place  it  is  made  ap- 
parent that  Justice  Bushrod  Washington,  who  was  one  of  the 
largest  beneficiaries,  and  who  had  the  custody  of  all  the  precious 
papers  must  have  suffered  a  great  mass  of  autographic  material 
to  be  taken  away  from  the  collection,  but  whether  with  or  with- 
out warrant  we  have  no  means  of  knowing.  Tradition  credits 
Justice  Bushrod  Washington  with  the  exercise  of  a  most  gra- 
cious hospitality  to  visitors  coming  to  Mount  Vernon  during  his 
ownership,  and  as  having  repeatedly  invited  distinguished 
persons  while  viewing  the  sage's  library  and  papers  to  help 
themselves  to  specimens  of  Gen.  Washington's  handwriting  as 
well  as  to  letters  from  distinguished  persons  to  him.  The  low 
estimate,  or  want  of  any  adequate  appreciation,  of  the  historic 
value  of  the  manuscript  papers  which  remained  at  Mount  Ver- 
non, after  the  death  of  the  General  and  his  wife,  may  be  said 
to  have  become  contagious  among  all  who  had  access  to  them. 
Even  the  historian,  Jared  Sparks,  it  would  seem  became  in- 
fected, and  deliberately  mutilated  memorandum  books  and  even 
the  diary  itself  (although  he  says  it  was  essential  in  writing 
the  life  of  the  General),  by  tearing  out  leaves  to  give  to  friends 
and  relic  hunters  as  veritable  autographic  memorials  of  our 
illustrious  Washington.  For  evidence  of  this  fact  see  speci- 
mens in  the  Dreer  collection  in  the  library  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Historical  Society,  given  by  Mr.  Sparks  to  Eobert  Gilmor, 
February  22,  1832,  with  the  certificate  of  the  fact  in  Judge 
Gilmor's  handwriting  attached. 

The  many  manuscript  volumes  which  comprise  the  diary  of 
Washington  are  now  so  scattered  that  it  is  hazardous  to  as- 
sume that  they  were  or  were  not  (in  one  form  or  another)  a 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.        109 

complete  and  continuous  record  as  to  time,  if  not  as  to  method 
and  matter,  when  they  left  the  hands  of  their  author.  It  is 
possible  and  to  be  hoped  that  other  volumes  and  parts  of  vol- 
umes and  missing  leaves  not  now  known  to  exist  may  yet  be 
discovered  which  may  fill  all  gaps.  Those  which  are  known 
to  be  extant  are  now  the  property  of  the  United  States  Gov- 
ernment, historical  societies,  public  and  private  libraries,  and 
collectors  of  literary  rarities,  so  that  it  is  very  difficult  to  find 
or  obtain  access  to  them  or  bring  the  disconnected  parts  to- 
gether. As  far  as  the  writer  knows,  his  is  the  only  complete 
assemblage  of  copies  of  all  the  known  originals  that  has  ever 
been  made  since  they  were  so  ruthlessly  dispersed  from  the 
library  shelves  at  Mount  Yernon. 

The  three  months  of  Washington's  diary  for  August,  Sep- 
tember and  October,  1774,  here  given,  comprise  a  most  im- 
portant period  in  the  early  movements  which  led  the  people  of 
the  English  colonies  up  to  an  armed  resistance  against  the 
tyranny  of  the  mother  country.  In  them  are  exhibited  Wash- 
ington's busy  life,  his  prudent  conduct,  diverse  employments  as 
a  planter,  a  patriotic  citizen  and  legislator,  in  whose  judgment 
the  people,  even  then,  with  great  unanimity  confided.  For 
sixteen  consecutive  years  he  had  served  in  the  assembly  of 
Virginia.  His  military  reputation,  too,  was  the  most  admired 
of  any  living  American-born  citizen.  The  people  of  Fairfax 
County,  in  mass  meeting,  had  but  recently  chosen  him  their 
chairman  and  had  sent  him  as  a  deputy  to  the  provincial  con- 
vention of  Virginia,  where  he  offered  those  aggressive  non-im- 
portation resolutions  which  were  unanimously  adopted.  This 
thoroughly  patriotic  convention,  too,  in  its  wisdom,  selected 
him  as  one  of  the  delegates  from  Virginia  to  the  First  Conti- 
nental Congress  in  1774.  His  daily  pursuits  and  his  associa- 
tion with  the  leading  men  of  the  day  at  Williamsburg,  Fred- 
ericksburg,  Alexandria,  Mount  Vernon  and  Philadelphia,  are 
here  a  matter  of  record,  and  attest  the  fact  that  wherever 
Washington  went  and  in  whatever  company  he  appeared,  he 
received  marked  attention  from  the  most  distinguished  people. 
His  accurate  knowledge  of  public  affairs,  his  good  sense  and 
tact  in  social  life,  as  well  as  in  the  political  arena,  during  that 
and  other  exciting  periods  in  our  history,  all  stamp  him  as  a 
man  of  great  wisdom,  sound  judgment  and  diplomatic  address 
of  the  first  order.  For  some  time  prior  to  the  meeting  of  the 
Congress  of  1774,  he  had  been  receiving  at  Mount  Vernon 


110  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

numerous  and  repeated  visits  from  some  of  the  most  prominent 
men  of  Virginia  and  Maryland,  among  whom  were  such  char- 
acters as  George  Mason  of  Virginia,  and  Thomas  Stone  of 
Maryland,  the  signer  of  the  Declaration. 

On  setting  out  on  this  occasion  for  Philadelphia,  as  was  his 
custom  when  going  east  by  Upper  Marlboro,  or  south  by  Port 
Tobacco,  he  sent  his  horses,  servants  and  baggage,  as  well 
as  those  of  his  traveling  companions,  across  the  Potomac 
at  the  ferry,  which  was  on  his  own  plantation,  some  hours 
in  advance  of  his  own  departure.  A  number  of  gentlemen 
from  the  neighborhood  were  his  guests  that  day,  and  after 
dinner,  Washington  with  Edmund  Pendleton  and  Patrick 
Henry,  also  members  of  the  Continental  Congress,  who  had 
been  resting  a  couple  of  days  at  Mount  Vornon,  crossed  the 
Potomac  River  in  front  of  the  mansion  in  his  own  rowboat. 
Mounting  their  horses  in  waiting  for  them  on  the  Maryland 
side,  they  rode  in  the  shade  of  the  afternoon  by  the  Port  To- 
bacco road  to  Upper  Marlboro,  where  they  lodged  for  the 
night. 

This  introduction  has  been  extended  much  beyond  the  in- 
tention of  the  writer;  but  he  found  in  his  search  for  the  miss- 
ing volumes  of  the  General's  diary  that  the  facts  in  the 
history  of  the  breaking  up  of  the  great  Mount  Vernon  library 
were  not  generally  known  or  accessible  to  students.  It  is 
hoped,  however,  that  this  attempt  at  a  schedule  of  the  Wash- 
ington papers  arid  library,  with  the  connected  narrative  of  the 
more  important  sales  and  removal  of  George  Washington's 
books  and  papers  from  Mount  Vernon,  with  the  statement 
where  most  of  these  treasures  have  found  a  permanent,  yet 
accessible  resting-place,  may  be  a  sufficient  apology. 

The  text  of  the  diary  is  given  with  literal  exactness,  the 
editor  restricting  his  agency  in  the  publication  to  footnotes, 
which  are  designed  to  furnish  the  reader  with  brief  references 
to  persons  and  places  named  in  the  diary.  No  attempt  is 
made  to  recount  the  proceedings  of  this  Congress.  The  de- 
bates were  never  made  public  and  the  parts  taken  by  the 
individual  members  can  not  be  known.  Washington  was 
not  an  extempore  speaker,  nor  does  he  record  speeches  of 
others.  It  has  been  ascertained  that  John  Dickinson  drafted 
the  petition  to  the  king  and  the  address  to  the  inhabitants  of 
Quebec,  and  that  Jay  drafted  the  address  to  the  people  ot 
Great  Britain;  while  Eichard  Henry  Lee,  of  Virginia,  pre- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  LIBRARY — TONER.         Ill 

pared  the  memorial  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  British  colonies, 
a  paper  which  extorted  a  eulogy  from  Chatham.  In  nearly 
every  instance  the  individuals  named  in  the  diary  were  enter- 
prising citizens,  and  some  of  them  leaders  of  thought  among 
their  neighbors.  Many  of  them  were  zealous  in  defense  of 
colonial  rights,  and  won  renown  in  the  army,  while  some  were 
lukewarm,  and  in  the  march  of  events  adhered  passively  to  the 
crown,  though  a  few  took  up  arms  in  its  defense.  The  diary, 
even  in  this  aspect,  throws  important  light  on  the  views  of  cer- 
tain actors  during  the  early  days  of  the  controversy  which  pre- 
ceded the  armed  contest  that  ended  in  the  independence  of 
the  colonies.  Washington's  diplomacy  and  cultured  address 
opened  to  him  castle  and  mansion,  and  enabled  him  to  mix  freely 
with  the  leaders  of  every  circle  in  society  and  learn  all  shades 
of  popular  opinion,  thus  obtaining  views  and  convictions  not 
usually  disclosed. 


DIARY  OF  COL.  GEORGE  WASHINGTON  FOR  AUGUST,  SEPTEM- 
BER AND  OCTOBER,  1774. 


Where,  how,  or  with  whom  my  time  is  Spent.1 

Aug*.  1st.  Went  from  Col°.  Bassetts2  to  Williamsburg3  to  the 
Meeting  of  the  Convention4 — Dined  at  Mr8<  Campbells5  — 
spent  ye  Evening  in  my  Lodgings* 

1  This  is  the  formula  or  heading  repeated  in  the  diary  at  the  beginning 
of  each  month  for  a  year  or  more     .» 

2  Col.  Burwell  Bassett,  of  "  Eltham,"  was  the  brother-in-law  of  Gen.  Wash- 
ington.   He  was  the  son  of  William  Bassett,  of  New  Kent  County,  Va., 
owner  of  the  fine  estate  known  as  "  Eltham,"  on  the  York  River,  a  little 
above  the  junction  of  the  Pamunky  and  Mattapony  rivers,  which  he  left 
to  his  son.     Burwell  was  twice  married;   first,  to  Ann  Kidly  Chamber- 
layne,  daughter  of  a  planter  in  New  Kent,  on  the  Pamunky  River.     She 
lived  but  a  few  years.    His  second  wife  was  Anna  Maria,  daughter  of  Col. 
John  Dandridge,  a  sister  of  Mrs.  Martha  Custis,  the  wife  of  George  Wash- 
ington.   Col.  Burwell  Bassett  was  killed  by  a  fall  from  a  spirited  horse  he 
was  training  to  the  saddle.    He  had  two  song  and  three  daughters. 

3  Williamsburg,  the  Colonial  capital  of  Virginia,  is  situated  between  the 
James  and  the  York  rivers,  in  James  City  County.     It  was  made  the  seat 
of  the  Colonial  government  in  1698,  on  the  removal  of  the  capital  from 
Jamestown,  on  account  of  a  very  disastrous  fire,  which  consumed  many  of 
the  public  records  and  much  of  the  town.    Williamsburg  continued  to 
be  the  official  residence  of  the  governor  and  all  the  provincial  officers, 
and  the  place  where  the  House  of  Burgesses  met  until  1779,  when  the 
seat  of  the  new  government  was  removed  to  Richmond.   The  College  of 
William  and  Mary,  founded  in  1692,  with  what  was  supposed  to  be  an 
ample  endowment  and  an  assured  income  to  support  it,  was  established 
at  Williamsburg. 

4  This  was  the  convention  of  Virginia.   A  circular  letter  drafted  by  eighty- 
nine  members  of  the  house  of  burgesses,  of  whom  Washington  was  one,  at  an 
improvised  meeting  in  the  "Apollo  room "  of  the  "Raleigh  tavern"  in  Wil- 
liamsburg, after  the  assembly  had  been  dissolved  by  the  governor  on 
May  25,  1774,  was  sent  to  their  constituents,  recommending  that  each 
and  every  county  in  Virginia  should  send  deputies  to  a  convention  to 
be  held  in  Williamsburg  on  the  1st  day  of  August,  1774.    At  the  proposed 
convention  the  various  questions   exciting  the   public  mind,  such  as 

S.  Mis.  57 8  113 


114  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

2.  At  the  Convention — dined  at  the  Treasurer's7 — at  my 
Lodgings  in  the  Evening 

3.  Dined  at  the  Speaker's 8  &  spent  the  Evening  at  my  own 
Lodgings. — 

taxation,  non-importation,  and  the  holding  of  a  Continental  Congress, 
were  to  be  generally  considered.  If  the  latter  proposition  was  accepted, 
the  convention  was  to  have  power  to  select  the  delegates  to  a  con- 
gress of  all  the  Colonies.  The  measures  recommended  by  this  letter  be- 
ing approved,  the  convention  met,  was  well  attended,  and  their  resolves 
were  practically  unanimous. 

The  following  memorandum,  in  Gen.  Washington's  handwriting,  doubt- 
less gives  the  result  of  the  ballots  in  this  convention  for  delegates  to  the 
first  Continental  Congress.  The  orignal  is  preserved  in  the  Dreer  collec- 
tion in  the  Pennsylvania  Historical  Society : 

1774. 

Peyton  Randolph,  Esqr 104 

Richd-  Henry  Lee 100 

Geo.  Washington , 98 

Pat.  Henry 89 

Rich*-  Bland 79 

Ben.  Harrison 66 

Edmd-  Pendleton 62 

6  Mrs. Campbell,  of  Williamsburg,  kept  a  large  boarding  house,  or 

possibly,  a  licensed  ordinary.  Washington's  cash  books  show  that  he  had, 
at  times,  patronized  her  house  since  1759.  It  is  probable  that  Mrs.  Camp- 
bell was  the  widow  of  Colin  Campbell,  deputy  adjutant  to  Washington 
in  1754. 

6  Washington  had  one  of  his  own  houses  in  Williamsburg  fitted  up  with 
the  necessary  furniture  for  lodging  and  office  facilities,  for  transacting 
business  and  for  conferences  with  his  friends  while  in  attendance  at  the 
meetings  of  the  House  of  Burgesses.    The  General  had  also  a  house  of  his 
own  in  Alexandria,  furnished  in  a  similar  manner,  where  he  occasionally 
lodged  and  where  he  always  met  gentlemen  for  the  transaction  of  business 
during  the  sessions  of  the  court  and  at  other  times  by  appointment,  in 
that  town. 

7  Robert  Carter  Nicholas,  esq.,  was  chosen  treasurer  in  1766  to  succeed 
John  Robinson,  esq.,  and  served  until  after  1775. 

8  Peyton  Randolph,  esq.,  one  of  the  grand  patriots  of  the  American 
Revolution,  was  born  at  "Tazewell  Hall,"  Williamsburg,  Va.,  1721,  and 
died  of  apoplexy  in  Philadelphia  while  attending  Congress,   October, 
22,  1775.    He  was  educated  at  William  and  Mary  College,  studied  law 
at  the  Inner  Temple  in  London,  received  the  appointment  of  the  King's 
Attorney  for  Virginia  in  1748,  while  William  Gooch  was  governor,  and  the 
same  year  was  elected  to  a  seat  in  the  House  of  Burgesses.    In  1766,  on  the 
death  of  John  Robinson,  he  became  speaker.    In  1754  he  was  commis- 
sioned by  the  burgesses  to  go  to  England  and  lay  before  the  Ministry  the 
unconstitutionality  of  the  exaction  by  the  governor  of  the  pistole  fee  on 
each  land  patent.    He  went,  but  without  the  permission  of  Governor  Din- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      115 

4.  Dined  at  the  Attorneys9  &  spent  the  Evening  at  my 
own  Lodgings 

5.  Dined  at  M".  Dawson's10  &  Spent  the  Evening  at  iny 
own  Lodgings 

widdie,  presented  the  case  with  ability  and  secured  a  modification  of  the 
practice.  The  fee,  in  time,  was  discontinued.  After  Braddock's  defeat 
he  headed  a  volunteer  company  of  100  mounted  men  to  protect  the  frontier 
against  an  invasion  of  Indians.  In  1758  he  was  appointed  a  visitor  of  Wil- 
liam and  Mary  College,  and  was  a  valued  officer  of  that  institution.  In 
1764,  as  a  member  of  the  Assembly,  he  drew  up  the  remonstrance  of  Vir- 
ginia to  the  pending  stamp  act.  He  was  chairman  of  the  committee  of 
correspondenee  in  1773,  and  influential  in  bringing  about  the  Continental 
Congress.  He  presided  over  the  Virginia  convention  of  August  1,  1774, 
and  was  the  first  of  seven  deputies  selected  to  attend  the  Continental  Con- 
gress, which  met  in  Philadelphia  the  5th  of  September  that  year,  and  was 
unanimously  chosen  their  presiding  officer.  He  had  had  much  parlia- 
mentary experience,  was  a  man  of  noble  presence,  self-possession  and 
kindliness  of  manner  which  made  him  very  popular.  The  friendship  be- 
tween Randolph  and  Washington  was  very  strong.  His  wife  was  the 
sister  of  Benjamin  Harrison,  of  Virginia.  They  left  no  children.  His 
remains  were  removed  from  Philadelphia  to  Virginia  and  interred  in  the 
chapel  of  William  and  Mary  College. 

9  John  Randolph,  esq.,  was  the  son  of  Sir  John  and  the  brother  of  the 
Hon.  Peyton  Randolph.  He  was  born  at  "Tazewell  Hall,"  Williams- 
burg,  Va.,  in  1727,  and  died  at  Brompton,  London,  England,  January  31, 
1784.  After  graduating  at  William  and  Mary  College,  he  studied  law  and 
soon  took  high  rank  at  the  bar.  His  elegant  home  in  Williamsburg  was 
a  center  of  literary  and  fashionable  life  before  the  Revolution.  In  1766 
he  succeeded  his  brother  Peyton  as  attorney-general  of  the  Colony  of 
Virginia.  On  the  outbreak  of  the  Revolution,  he  was  for  a  time  the  me- 
dium of  communication  between  LordDunmore,  the  burgesses  and  council. 
His  sentiment  of  honor,  his  regard  for  his  oath  of  office  and  his  friend- 
ship for  Lord  Dunmore  wove  a  web  so  binding  as  to  inhibit  him  from  tak- 
ing up  arms  on  either  side  and,  therefore,  with  his  wife  and  two  daugh- 
ters, sailed  for  England,  leaving  his  son  Edmund,  the  patriot,  behind. 
His  wife  was  Ariana,  daughter  of  Edmund  Jennings,  and  granddaughter 
of  Edmund  Jennings,  for  a  time  secretary  of  the  Colony  of  Virginia,  then 
attorney-general,  and  later  president  of  the  council,  and  acting  gov- 
ernor of  Virginia.  After  his  death  his  remains  were  brought  to  Vir- 
ginia and  interred,  according  to  his  own  request,  in  the  chapel  of  Wil- 
liam and  Mary  College. 

10  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Dawson  is  supposed  to  have  been  Miss  Churchill,  who 
married  Commissary  William  Dawson,  afterwards  president  of  William 
and  Mary  College.  As  a  widow,  she  kept  a  fashionable  boarding  house 
in  Williamsburg  for  some  years.  In  1768  she  disposed  of  her  coach  by 
raffle,  in  which  Washington  took  chances.  On  June  1,  1774,  his  cash 
book  shows  that  he  lent  the  lady  £2.  His  ledger  in  after  years  showg 
this  account  closed  by  loss,  £2. 


116  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

6.  Dined  at  Mrs>  Campbells  &  Spent  the  Evening  at  my  own 
Lodgings 

7.  Left  Williamsburg  ab*-  9  Oclock  &  got  up  to  Col0<  Bassetts 
to  Dinner  where  I  stayd  the  remaining  part  of  the  day  &  Night 

Aug*-  8th'  Left  Col0-  Bassetts — Visited  my  own  Plantn*  n  in 
King  Wm>  12  &  Mr<  Custis's  13  in  King  &  Queen-14  dind  at 
King  Wm-  C*-  House  15  &  lodged  at  Tods  Bridge  16 

11  Besides  the  plantation  owned  by  Washington  and  situated  in  King 
William  County,  there  were  lands  belonging  to  the  Custis  estate,  of  which 
he  was  executor,  both  in  this,  New  Kent  and  King  and  Queen  counties. 
Washington  also  owned  and  operated  two  plantations  on  the  Rappahan- 
nock,  and  three  in  the  valley  of  Virginia,  besides  the  five  composing  his 
Mount  Vernon  estate,  and  known  as  Mansion  House,  Dogue  Run,  Muddy 
Hole,  Ferry  farm  and  River  farm. 

12  King    William   County,  Va.,  lies    between  the  Mattapony  and   the 
Pamunky  rivers  which  bound  it  on  the  north  and  south  sides  respectively. 

13 Col.  John  Parke  Custis  was  born  at  the  "  White  House"  on  the  Pa- 
munky River  in  New  Kent  County,  Va.,  in  1753.  He  was  the  son  of  Daniel 
Parke  and  Martha  (Dandridge)  Custis.  His  father  died  leaving  John  and 
Patsy  Custis  with  a  good  productive  estate  to  the  care  of  their  mother. 
January  6,  1759,  Mrs.  Martha  Custis  was  married  to  Col.  George  Washing- 
ton of  Mount  Vernon.  At  the  latter  place  these  children  as  wards  passed 
their  childhood  and  enjoyed  the  protection  and  guidance  of  their  mother 
and  their  foster  father,  Gen.  George  Washington.  While  a  boy,  Wash- 
ington spoke  of  him  as  John  and  Jacky,  but  in  1771  begins  to  give  him 
his  full  name,  John  Parke  Custis  and  writes  of  him  as  Mr.  Custis.  John 
Parke  Custis  was  educated,  at  first,  by  private  tutors,  but  later  was  for  a 
time  at  St.  John's  College,  Annapolis,  and  also  at  Princeton,  N.  J.  He 
inherited  a  good  estate  which  had  been  admirably  managed  for  him  by 
Gen.  Washington.  February  3, 1774,  he  was  united  in  marriage  to  Eleanor, 
familiarly  called  Nelly,  daughter  of  Benedict  Calvert  of  "Mount  Airy," 
Md.  The  young  couple  for  some  years  resided  at  Mount  Vernon  and 
then  removed  to  their  own  plantation  known  as  "  Abingdon, "  on  the 
Potomac  River  immediately  above  Alexandria.  He  was  always  consider- 
ately cared  for  by  Gen.  Washington  and  in  all  respects  treated  as  a  son. 
Manifesting  a  desire  to  serve  in  the  army,  Washington  appointed  him  his 
aide-de-camp  with  the  rank  of  colonel  and  he  proceeded  with  the  army  to 
Yorktown.  During  the  siege  of  that  place,  he  was  seized  with  fever  and 
died  at  "Eltham,"  the  residence  of  his  uncle,  Burwell  Bassett,  November 
5,  1781,  leaving  a  wife  and  four  children: — Elizabeth  Parke,  born  August, 
1776;  Martha  Parke,  December,  1777;  Eleanor  Parke,  March,  1779;  and 
George  Washington  Parke,  April,  1781.  The  youngest  two  were  adopted 
by  Gen.  Washington  and  his  wife.  The  remains  of  Col.  John  Parke  Custis 
were  interred  at  "Eltham. "  In  the  fall  of  1783  his  widow  was  married  to 
Dr.  David  Stuart,  of  Maryland. 

14 King  and  Queen  County,  Va.,  lies  between  the  Mattapony  and  the 
Piankatank  rivers,  which  bound  it  on  the  south  and  north,  respectively. 

16  King  William  Court-House  is  about  2  miles  from  the  Mattapony 
River  on  the  main  road  to  Fredericksburg  and  about  25  miles  from  Wil- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      117 

9.  Breakfasted  at  Roys  Ord?-17  Dined  and  lodged  at  Col0' 
Lewis's  18  in  Fredericksburg  19 

10.  Breakfasted  at  Tylers 20  on  Acquiae 21 — &  Dined  at  home 

liamsburg.  This  court  house  was  unfortunately  destroyed  by  fire  a  few 
years  ago,  causing  another  serious  loss  to  those  already  sustained,  and 
adding  to  the  calamitous  destruction  of  Virginia  records. 

16Todd's  Bridge  crossed  the  Mattapony  River  about  2  miles  above  Aylett's 
and  some  6  miles  from  King  William  Court-House.  Todd's  Ordinary  was 
kept  there  on  the  north  side  of  the  stream. 

17  Roy's  Ordinary  was  kept  by  Boswell  Roy,  an  extensive  planter,  a 
few  miles  south  of  Bowling  Green.     He  was  a  member  of  a  numerous  and 
influential  family  of  this  name,  who  were  among  the  early  settlers  on  the 
Rappahannock  and  in  its  vicinity,  and  from  whom  the  village,  Port  Royal, 
got  its  name.     The  name  was  once  attached  to  "Roy's  warehouse"  and 
Royston's  in  Caroline  County.     The  patriot  and  distinguished  judge,  Ed- 
mund Pendleton,  married  a  daughter  of  Boswell  Roy. 

18  Col.  Fielding  Lewis,  patriot  and  planter  of  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  was 
born  in  Spottsylvania  County,  1726,  and  died  at  "Kenmore  House,"  on  his 
large  estate  adjoining  the  town  of  Fredericksburg,  December,  1781.    He 
was  an  enterprising,  active,  successful  and  popular  business  man  and  the 
first  mayor  of  the  town.    He  was  one  of  the  magistrates  of  the  county,  a 
member  of  the  House  of  Burgesses  and  an  early  and  influential  patriot  in 
the  Revolution.    His  business  capacity  led  him  to  be  placed  at  the  head 
of  an  establishment  founded  in  Fredericksburg,  early  in  the  Revolution, 
for  the  manufacture  of  arms.    The  site  of  these  works  is  still  known  as 
"Gunning  Green."    He  was  twice  married;  first,  to  Catherine  Washing- 
ton, cousin  to  Gen.  Washington,  by  whom  he  had  three  children :  John, 
Francis  and  Warner,  the  last  of  whom  died  in  infancy.     Second,  to  Betty, 
only  sister  of  Gen.  Washington,  by  whom  he  had  nine  sons  and  three 
daughters.    Mrs.  Betty  Lewis  was  majestic  in  person,  lovely  in  mental 
and  moral  attributes,  and  in  figure  and  features  closely  resembled  her  il- 
lustrious brother.    The  grave  of  Mary,  the  mother  of  George  Washington, 
is  on  what  was  then  the  Kenmore  Estate.     After  the  death  of  Col.  Lewis 
his  property  was  divided  equally  among  his  children. 

19  Fredericksburg  is  situated  on  a  broad  plateau  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  Rappahannock  River,  in  Spottsylvania  County,  Va.,  and  is  the  seat  of 
justice.     It  is  about  midway  between  Washington  and  Richmond.    The 
farm  of  Augustine  Washington,  on  which  his  son  George  passed  his  child- 
life,  was  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Rappahannock,  a  mile  or  more  below  the 
present  railroad  bridge.    His  widow  continued  to  live  there  until  1775, 
when  her  children  induced  her  to  remove  into  the  town  of  Fredericks- 
burg.    The  distance  between  Fredericksburg  and  Mount  Vernon  is  45 
miles,  which  Washington  repeatedly  accomplished,  on  horseback,  in  seven 
hours. 

80  Thomas  G.  Tyler  resided  on  a  plantation  in  the  vicinity  of  Aquia, 
and  as  early  as  1774,  perhaps  even  before  that,  kept  an  ordinary. 

21  Aquia  was  inland,  and  is  a  small  village  at  the  head  of  tide  water 
on  Aquia  Creek.  The  main  road  from  Alexandria  and  Dumfries  to  King 
George  County  and  to  Fredericksburg  crossed  the  stream  at  this  place. 


118  AMERICAN  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

11.  At  home  all  day.  —  Miss  Calvert  22  here. 

12.  At  home  all  day    Miss  Carlyle  23  &  her  Sister  Nancy 
came  here.  —  Mr.  Willis  24  also  diiid  here,  &  went  away  after- 


13.  I  rid  to  the  Neck  Plantation  25  &  came  home  by  Muddy 
hole26. 

Near  by  was  the  historic  Aquia  Creek  Church,  which  was  very  elegant  and 
spacious  for  its  time.  Shipping  merchants  early  established  stores  at  this 
point  and  conducted  a  profitable  trade  with  the  planters  of  Prince  Wil- 
liam and  Stafford  counties.  A  ferry  between  Virginia  and  Maryland, 
which  had  been  maintained  near  Aquia  from  an  early  day,  added  to  the 
importance  of  the  place. 

32  Miss  Elizabeth  Calvert  was  the  daughter  of  Benedict  Calvert,  of 
"Mount  Airy,"  Md.,  who  married  Charles  Stewart.  Her  sister  Eleanor 
married  John  Parke  Custis,  July  3,  1774.  Ariana,  another  and  younger 
sister,  is,  however,  presumed  to  have  been  too  young  to  have  been  visiting 
Mount  Vernon  at  this  time.  She  never  married. 

83  Miss  Sarah,  usually  called  Sally  Carlyle,  was  the  daughter  of  Col. 
John,  a  merchant  of  Alexandria,  Va.,  (who  served  as  commissary,  with  the 
rank  of  major,  in  the  French  and  Indian  war),  and  his  wife  Sarah  (Fairfax) 
Carlyle.  She  had  a  younger  sister,  Nancy,  and  a  brother,  George,  and  they 
were  all  frequent  visitors  at  Mount  Vernon. 

24  Francis  Willis,  jr.,esq.,  was  a  young  lawyer  much  employed  by  Gen. 
Washington  and  by  G.  W.  Fairfax,  about  this  time,  in  the  management  of 
the  latter's  business.  He  was  the  son  of  Francis,  and  grandson  of  Lewis 
Willis,  of  Fredericksburg,  Va,,  whose  families  had  intermarried  with  the 
Washingtons. 

36  "Neck  Plantation"  was  a  name  applied,  for  a  time,  to  the  farms  lying 
immediately  above  Little  Hunting  Creek  on  the  Potomac.  It  contained 
1,207  acres  of  "plowable  land."  By  the  purchase  of  a  tract  of  1,806  acres 
from  William  Clifton  in  1760,  the  bounds  of  the  Mount  Vernon  estate  were 
greatly  enlarged.  This  particular  plantation  came  to  be  included  in  what 
was  afterwards  known  as  the  "  River  Farm,"  and  is  so  referred  to  in  Gen. 
Washington's  designation  of  the  various  farms  belonging  to  his  posses- 
sions on  the  Potomac.  (See  letter  December  12,  1793,  to  Arthur  Young.) 
But  there  were  at  least  two  other  larger  tracts  or  farms  adjoining  this 
purchase  from  Clifton,  included  in  the  River  Farm.  March  30,  1774, 
Washington  records  the  fact:—  "  Walked  to  my  three  plantations  in  the 
Neck." 

26  Muddy  Hole  farm  lay  nearly  3  miles  northwest  from  the  Mount  Vernon 
mansion  house  and  contained  476  acres  of  beautifully  situated  clay  land. 
The  name  had  prejudiced  this  tract  in  the  writer's  estimation  until  he 
traveled  over  it.  No  person  seems  able  to  account  for  the  name,  which  was, 
however,  given  to  it  before  Gen.  Washington  bought  it.  This  and  each 
of  the  other  farms  had  their  overseer,  servants,  buildings  and  general  outfit 
independent  of  each  other. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      119 

14.  Went  to  Pohick  Church27  with  Mr.  Custis— found  Messrs. 
Carlyle,28  Dalton,29  Eamsay,30  Adam,31  &  Doctr.  Eumney32  here 
upon  my  Eeturn. — Doctr.  Craik33  also  came  in  the  afternoon. — 

37  Pohick  Church,  Truro  Parish,  is  situated  on  Pohick  Creek,  about  7 
miles  from  Mount  Vernon  and  4  from  Gunston  Hall.  The  first  edifice  was 
frame,  built  in  1732.  This  was  the  church  attended  by  the  occupants  of 
Mount  Vernon  up  to  1765,  when  it  had  become  so  dilapidated  as  to  be  no 
longer  worth  repairing.  Washington  was  chosen  a  vestryman  in  1765  and 
was  kept  in  that  office  for  several  years.  The  parishioners  resolved  at  that 
time  to  build  a  new  church  and  construct  it  of  brick.  After  much  dis- 
cussion a  new  site  was  chosen  2  miles  farther  up  the  stream  and  more  cen- 
tral to  the  majority  of  the  parishioners,  though  but  little,  if  any,  nearer  to 
Mount  Vernon.  It,  however,  was  not  completed  until  1772.  Washington 
drew  the  plans  for  it  and  served  on  the  building  committee.  The  new 
church  was  erected  on  ground  given  for  the  purpose  by  Daniel  French. 
Washington  bought  pew  No.  28,  north  side,  next  the  communion  table,  for 
which  he  paid  £16,  and  had  it  marked  with  his  initials.  Lund  Washing- 
ton bought  No.  29,  which  he  afterwards  sold  to  the  General.  While  this 
church  was  being  built  the  family  attended  Christ  Church,  Fairfax  Parish, 
in  Alexandria,  where  the  General  was  also  a  vestryman  and  had  a  pew. 
Considering  the  condition  of  the  roads  in  those  days  and  the  distance  to 
be  traveled,  the  Washington  family  were  very  constant  in  their  attend- 
ance. 

28  Col.  John  Carlyle,  of  Alexandria,  was  a  native  of  Scotland,  who  early 
in  life  became  a  merchant  on  the  Potomac.  He  was  twice  married;  first  to 
Sarah,  second  daughter  of  the  Hon.  William  Fairfax,  of  "Belvoir."  He 
was  in  business  in  Alexandria  as  early  as  1745.  In  1753  he  erected,  on  Fair- 
fax street,  a  large  stone  residence,  which  is  still  standing,  and  in  which  he 
entertained  Gen.  Braddock  in  1755  and  the  governors  of  the  five  provinces 
who  met  there  to  concert  measures  for  the  campaign  against  the  French 
on  the  Ohio,  which  ended  so  disastrously.  He  was  appointed  by  Governor 
Dinwiddie  in  1754  commissary  of  provisions  and  stores  for  the  expedition 
of  that  year  to  the  Ohio.  His  mercantile  and  shipping  business  was  con- 
ducted under  a  co-partnership  with  John  Dalton.  When,  in  1748,  a 
charter  was  granted  for  the  town  of  Alexandria,  he  was  named  in  the  Act 
as  one  of  the  trustees.  On  the  death  of  his  father-in-law,  William  Fair- 
fax, he  was  appointed  as  Royal  Collector  of  the  Potomac.  He  and  all  the 
members  of  his  family  were  frequent  visitors  at  Mount  Vernon.  His 
second  wife  was  Sybil  West,  daughter  of  Hugh  and  Sybil  (Harrison) 
West. 

29Capt.  John  Dalton,  of  Alexandria,  was  a  partner  with  John  Carlyle. 
They  conducted  an  extensive  domestic  trade  in  the  shipping  and  importing 
business,  and  were  contractors  to  furnish  the  chief  supplies  to  the  Provin- 
cial Army  of  Virginia  up  to  the  time  the  French  were  driven  from  the 
Ohio.  Capt.  Dalton  got  his  title  by  commanding,  for  a  time,  a  company  of 
militia  and  is  occasionally  spoken  of  as  colonel.  As  early  as  1748  he  was 
a  freeholder  and  voted  in  Fairfax  County.  He  was  one  of  the  original 
trustees  of  the  town  of  Alexandria,  appointed  in  1748.  Before  1760  he  built 
himself,  on  the  northeast  corner  of  Cameron  and  Fairfax  streets,  a  fine  resi- 


120  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 


dence,  which  is  still  standing.  He  was  frequently  at  Mount  Vernon  on 
business,  his  firm  buying  fish,  flour  and  other  products  from  the  General. 
His  children  were  also  frequent  visitors  at  the  same  place.  He  died  in 
Alexandria  in  1777,  leaving  a  considerable  estate. 

30Capt.  William  Ramsay,  of  Alexandria,  Va.,  was  born  in  Scotland  in 
1716.  He  came  to  America  and  settled  as  a  trader  and  merchant  in  Alex- 
andria in  1744,  and  died  there  in  1785.  He  was  well  informed  in  the  laws 
of  trade,  familiar  with  the  markets  of  the  world  and  very  popular 
with  the  farmers  on  the  Upper  Potomac,  who  bought  supplies  and  mar- 
keted their  produce  with  him.  He  married  Ann  McCarty,  a  relative, 
through  the  Balls,  of  the  mother  of  George  Washington.  Capt.  Ramsay 
early  and  fully  identified  himself  with  the  town  of  Alexandria,  as  well  as 
with  the  Colony  of  Virginia  and  the  interests  of  the  surrounding  sections 
of  country.  In  the  act  incorporating  Alexandria,  in  1748,  he  was  named  as 
one  of  the  trustees.  His  extensive  commercial  and  shipping  connections 
enabled  him  to  supply  much  of  the  outfits  to  the  military  expeditions  of 
Virginia  from  1754  to  1763.  On  the  occasion  of  an  alarm  in  1756  of  an  In- 
dian invasion,  he  served  for  a  time  as  captain  of  a  militia  company  from 
Fairfax,  under  Washington.  His  son,  Dennis,  was  colonel  of  a  Virginia 
regiment  in  the  Revolution  and  served  as  mayor  of  Alexandria  in  1793. 
Another  son,  Dr.  William  Ramsay,  served  as  surgeon  throughout  the  war 
for  independence.  He  was  one  of  the  early  merchants  to  reclaim  the  flats 
and  build  wharves  in  front  of  the  town.  The  Washington  and  Alexandria 
ferry  wharf  was  originally  built  by  him  in  1784-'85.  Capt.  Ramsay  and 
his  family  were  on  terms  of  intimacy  at  Mount  Vernon.  Washington's 
letters  and  also  his  cashbooks  show  that  the  General  contributed  a  part 
of  the  funds  necessary  to  educate  William  Ramsay,  jr.,  at  Princeton. 

31  Robert  Adam,  merchant  of  Alexandria,  was  born  in  Scotland,  1731,  and 
died  on  his  plantation  4  miles  from  Alexandria,  in  Fairfax  County,  March 
27,  1789.     On  coming  to  America  he  resided  for  a  time  in  Annapolis,  Md., 
before  settling  in  Alexandria,  Va.,  in  1753.     He  had  received  careful  train- 
ing as  a  merchant;  was  well  educated;  had  refined  tastes  and  correct 
habits.     Through    his  business  enterprise,   there  were  inaugurated  at 
Alexandria  a  number  of  industries,  some  of  which  are  continued  to  this 
day.    He  also  established  methods  of  exchanges  and  agencies  with  mer- 
chants, and  shipped  to  different  cities  and  seaports,  which  had  the  effect 
of  augmenting  the  volume  and  character  of  his  business.     For  years,  he 
bought  the  whole  catch  of  fish  at  the  different  fishing  landings  of  the 
Mount  Vernon  estate  just  as  they  were  taken  from  the  seine,  cured  them 
himself,  then  packed  and  shipped  them  as  he  found  a  market.     He  was  a 
zealous  and  prominent  Mason,  and  largely  influenced  the  forming  and  the 
founding  of  the  lodge  in  Alexandria,  in  1783.     As  a  merchant,  his  house 
had  a  deservedly  extensive  credit.     His  home  was  maintained  in  elegant 
style,  as  refinement  and  culture  were  natural  to  him.    In  1772  he  com- 
pleted a  new  storeroom,  the  size  and  finish  of  which  attracted  much  atten- 
tion.   Gen.  and  Mrs.  Washington,  with  Patsy  Custis,  went  to  Alexandria 
expressly  to  see  it.    Mr.  Adam  left  a  family  of  sons  and  daughters, 
some  of  whose  descendants  reside  in  Alexandria  at  this  time. 

32  Dr.  William  Rumney,  of  Alexandria,  was  a  well-educated  physician, 
a  native  of  Northumberland,  England,  where  his  father  was  established  as 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774  —  TONER.      121 


15.  Went  in  Compa<  with  the  aforementd>  Gentlemen  to 
Col°-  Fairfax's  34  Sale.  —  Mr-  Bamsay,  Mr-  Dalton,  &  Doctr- 
Craik  came  home  with  me  —  the  Best  did  not  —  Miss  Carlyle  & 
her  Sister  went 


master  of  a  Latin  school  at  Alnwick.  An  uncle  was  a  clergyman  at  Ber- 
wick, England.  The  doctor,  after  receiving  a,  good  classical  education, 
studied  medicine  and  qualified  for  practice  in  London.  He  then  accepted 
service  as  a  surgeon  in  the  British  Colonial  army,  where  he  remained  for 
several  years.  Resolving  to  go  to  America,  he  resigned  his  position,  and 
settled  in  Alexandria,  Va.,  about  1763.  He  was  employed  by  Washington 
to  attend,  by  the  year,  the  servants  of  the  several  farms  constituting  the 
Mount  Vernon  estate  from  1766  to  1781,  at  a  fixed  sum  per  year.  There 
was  also  a  William  Rumney,  a  shipping  merchant,  in  Alexandria,  about 
the  period  of  this  journal,  and  for  years  after  the  Revolution,  supposed  to 
be  an  uncle  of  the  doctor's.  It  was  through  the  firm  of  John  Rumney  & 
Co.,  of  White  Haven,  England,  that  Gen.  Washington  imported  the  stone 
tiling  for  the  great  eastern  portico  of  the  Mount  Vernon  mansion. 

83  Dr.  James  Craik  was  born  at  Obigland,  Scotland,  in  1732,  and  died 
on  his  plantation,  "  Vaucluse,"  near  Alexandria,  in  Fairfax  County, 
Va.,  February  6,  1814.  He  graduated,  both  in  letters  and  medicine,  at 
the  University  of  Edinburgh,  and  then  entered  the  army  as  a  surgeon, 
serving  for  some  time  in  the  West  Indies.  Resigning  in  the  winter  of  1753, 
he  came  to  Virginia  with  the  intention  of  practicing  his  profession  at 
Norfolk.  But,  early  in  the  spring  of  1754,  an  expedition  was  being  organ- 
ized for  the  Ohio,  which  he  j  oined.  His  name  appears  at  one  time  as  ensign, 
at  another  as  lieutenant,  and  again  as  surgeon.  He  was  with  Col.  George 
Washington  in  the  battle  of  the  Great  Meadows  and  the  surrender  of  "  Fort 
Necessity,"  in  July,  1754.  On  the  failure  of  this  enterprise,  he  remained 
with  the  troops  at  Winchester  and  went  out  with  the  unfortunate  Brad- 
dock  expedition  in  1755.  He  remained  attached  to  the  Virginia  troops 
until  about  1763.  While  in  the  army  he  acquired  one  or  more  plantations 
in  the  valley  of  Virginia,  but  eventually  bought  a  plantation  in  Maryland, 
in  the  vicinity  of  Port  Tobacco,  about  8  miles  from  Mount  Vernon,  where 
he  resided  until  after  the  Revolution.  He  served  as  a  surgeon  in  the 
struggle  for  American  Independence  and  rose  to  be  director-general  of  the 
hospitals  at  Williamsburg  at  the  capture  of  Cornwallis's  army.  He  received 
from  Virginia  6,000  acres  of  land  for  his  services  in  the  Indian  and  Revo- 
lutionary wars.  In  1760  he  was  married  to  Mariamne  Ewell,  by  whom  he 
had  four  sons  and  three  daughters  ;  one  of  the  sous  was  named  George 
Washington,  to  whose  education  the  General  contributed  liberally.  The 
friendship  that  was  formed  between  the  General  and  the  doctor  in  1754 
lasted  through  their  lives,  and  the  latter  was  always  a  welcome  guest  at 
Mount  Vernon.  It  was  his  sad  duty  to  attend  the  General  in  his  last  ill- 
ness, and  was  pleasantly  remembered  in  his  will  as  "his  old  and  intimate 
friend." 

34  Colonel  George  William  Fairfax,  of  "  Belvoir,"  Va.,  the  oldest  son  of  the 
Hon.  William  Fairfax,  was  born  at  Nassau,  in  the  West  Indies,  in  1724, 
and  died  at  Bath,  England,  April  3,  1787.  The  Colonel  was  educated  in 
England,  after  which  he  resided  with  his  father  at  "  Belvoir,"  and  found 


122  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

16.  Ramsay  Dalton  &  ye  Doctr-  went  away  after  Breakfast 

17.  I  rid  to  Doeg35  Run,  Muddy  hole,  Mill,36  &Poseys  Plant"837. 


profitable  employment  with  Lord  Thomas  Fairfax,  in  the  Valley  of  Vir- 
ginia, and  in  the  development  for  himself  of  new  plantations  in  that  re- 
gion. In  1748  he  married  Sarah,  daughter  of  Col.  Wilson  Cary,  of  Hamp- 
ton, Va.  He  resided  for  some  years  partly  at  "  Belvoir,"  and  in  the  summer 
at  "Greenway  Court."  On  the  death  of  his  father,  in  1757,  he  inherited 
" Belvoir"  and  resided  there  continously  until  1773,  when  he  went  to  Eng- 
land to  attend  to  some  business  there,  appointing  his  friend,  George  Wash- 
ington, his  agent.  It  soon  became  evident  to  him  that  his  stay  in  England 
would,  of  necessity,  be  protracted  for  some  years,  and  in  1774  he  directed 
a  vendue  at  which  all  his  household  effects  should  be  sold,  and  "  Bel- 
voir" rented.  This  was  done.  A  list  of  the  articles  bought  at  the  first 
sale,  August  15, 1774,  by  Gen.  Washington  amounting  to  £169  12s.  6d.,  may 
be  seen  in  a  note  in  "  A  Journal  of  My  Journey  over  the  Mountains,"  p.  16. 
The  house  was  leased  but  in  a  few  years  it  was  accidentally  burned,  and 
was  never  rebuilt.  Early  in  1775,  Washington  resigned  his  agency  in  the 
management  of  Fairfax's  affairs.  His  estate  in  Virginia  consisted  chiefly 
of  lands,  much  of  them  of  the  first  quality,  which  were  rapidly  enhancing 
in  value.  As  he  had  no  children,  "Belvoir"  was  left  to  Ferdinand,  son  of 
the  Rev.  Bryan  Fairfax,  and  his  other  property  to  his  heirs.  The  friend- 
ship continued  between  Col.  Fairfax  and  Gen.  Washington  throughout 
their  lives. 

36  Dogue  Run  farm,  also  spoken  of  as  Dogue  Run  plantation  and  Dogue 
Run  quarters  lay  two  miles  to  the  southwest  of  the  Mount  Vernon  Mansion 
House,  on  a  creek  of  the  same  name.  Washington,  in  a  letter  to  Arthur 
Young,  bearing  date  12th  December,  1793,  describes  Dogue  Run  farm  as 
"consisting  of  six  hundred  and  fifty  acres,  with  a  new  building  for  the 
overlooker  and  covering  for  forty  odd  negroes  and  a  new  Circular  barn 
and  stabling  and  sheds  for  thirty  work-horses  and  oxen."  It  adjoined  the 
Mill  and  the  Posey  farm. 

36  George  Washington  inherited  a  small  mill  at  the  mouth  of  Dogue  Run 
built  by  his  father  and  left  by  him  with  the  "Hunting  Creek  tract,"  af- 
terwards known  as  "Mount  Vernon,"  to  Major  Lawrence,  who  left  it  to 
George.  The  frequent  mention  of  repairing  the  mill-dam  and  race  in 
Washington's  Diary  raises  the  query  as  to  whether  it  was  not  badly  loca- 
ted or  defective  in  construction.  February  10,  1770,  assisted  by  Mr.  Bal- 
lendine,  Washington  ran  a  new  line  of  levels  on  Dogue  Run  to  deter- 
mine a  site  for  a  new  mill,  then  about  to  be  built.  In  January,  1771,  he 
records  the  fact  that  he  had  completed  the  work  of  turning  Piney  Branch 
run  into  Dogue  run  to  augment  the  supply  of  water  to  his  two  mills.  The 
Mill  plantation  included  land  on  both  sides  of  Dogue  run,  adjacent  to 
the  mill  but  chiefly  to  the  east  of  Dogue  run  plantation.  In  the  later  years 
of  the  administration  of  the  estate  the  name  "Mill  plantation"  disappears 
and  it  is  presumed  that  the  lands  were  farmed  under  the  supervision  of 
the  Dogue  run  overseer  and  not,  therefore,  mentioned  in  Washington's 
enumeration  of  farms  in  1793. 

37Posey's  Plantation  refers  to  a  farm  which  Washington  bought  of  Capt. 
John  Posey,  lying  below  the  mouth  of  Dogue  Run  on  the  Potomac.  In 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.       123 

18.  Eid  to  the  Plantation's  in  the  Neck.— found  Mr.  Fitz- 
hugh38  here  upon  my  Eeturn — 

19.  Mr.  Fitzhugh  went  away  after  Breakfast — 

20.  Eid  with  Mrs*  Washington39  to  Alexa-40  &  returnd  to 
Dinner — 

1753,  by  Act  of  Assembly,  a  ferry  from  Posey's  farm  to  the  plantation  of 
Thomas  Marshall  in  Maryland  was  authorized  to  be  established.  Tnere 
was  also  on  the  plantation  a  good  fishing  landing  for  seine  hauling,  and  the 
buildings  necessary  for  curing  the  fish  caught.  In  1769,  Washington 
bought  this  farm  and  united  it  under  the  Mount  Vernon  management  as  a 
part  of  the  Dogue  Run  Plantation.  Capt.  Posey  at  the  time,  reserved  the 
ferry  and  the  ferry  house  with  12  acres  which,  however,  he  sold  to  Wash- 
ington in  1772.  The  ferry  was  continued  as  an  enterprise  by  Gen.  Wash- 
ington and  the  fishing  landing  was  also  used  in  season.  Capt  Posey  is  be- 
lieved to  have  served  with  Washington  in  the  French  and  Indian  War. 
He  was  the  father  of  Col.  Thomas  Posey  of  the  Revolution. 

38  Mr. Fitzhugh.     There  was  a  numerous  and  influential  family  of 

this  name  in  Virginia,  with  whom  Washington  was  on  terms  of  familiar 
intercourse  but  there  is  nothing  in  the  text  to  designate  the  particular 
person  here  referred  to.    The  writer  is  left  to  conjecture  that  it  was  either 
William  Fitzhugh  of  King  George  County,  or  the  planter  John  of  "  Mar- 
mion"  of  that  county,  both  of  whom  were  frequently  at  Mount  Vernon. 

39  Gen.  Washington's  attention  to  his  wife  and  the  respectful  manner  in 
which  he  addressed  her,  alike  in  the  family  circle  and  in  company,  as  well 
as  when  referring  to  her  in  his  diary  and  letters,  was  always  most  consid- 
erate, polite  and  affectionate. 

4(1  Alexandria,  Va.  This  location  was  included  in  a  patent  or  grant  for 
6,000  acres  of  land  fronting  on  the  Potomac  River,  and  extending  from 
Hunting  Creek  just  below  the  town  to  Pomit's  run  near  the  Little  Falls 
above  Georgetown.  This  patent  was  issued  to  Robert  Howson  by  Sir 
William  Berkeley,  Governor  of  Virginia,  in  1669.  The  same  year  the  title 
was  conveyed  for  the  consideration  of  six  hogsheads  of  tobacco  to  John 
Alexander.  A  "tobacco-rolling  house,"  as  such  warehouses  were  then  called 
in  Virginia,  was  established  on  the  site  of  the  present  town  of  Alexandria, 
then  called  "Belle  Haven."  The  name  of  these  houses  was  no  doubt  sug- 
gested by  the  method  of  transporting  the  hogsheads  of  tobacco  by  putting 
a  shaft  to  an  axle  passed  through  from  end  to  end  of  the  hogshead,  to  which 
a  horse  was  harnessed,  and  then  rolling  them  over  the  roads  on  their  own 
periphery.  Alexandria  was  incorporated  as  a  town  with  trustees  named  in 
the  Act  in  1748  and  its  organization  effected  July  13,  1749.  In  1780  it  was 
re-organized  under  a  more  republican  form  of  government.  In  1763  George 
Washington  became  one  of  the  trustees  and  served  for  some  years.  It 
was  here  that  he  often  attended  church,  made  his  purchases,  did  his  bank- 
ing, mailed  and  received  his  letters.  The  town  is  full  of  traditions  of  his 
interest  in  the  place  and  in  the  people. 


124  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

21.  At  home  all  day  Mr.  Moylan,41  Doctr.  Craik,  &  M*.  Fitz- 
gerald42 Bind  here. — the  latter  went  away. — 

22.  Doctr.  Craik  went  away  after  Breakfast,  &  Mr.  Moyland 
after  Dinner  havg.  Rid  with  to  shew  Belvoir. — 43 

Aug*.  23.  At  home  all  day  alone. 

24.  At  home  all  day  alone  • 

25.  Ditto  M'8.  Slaughter44  dind  here 

26.  Ditto  all  day  alone. 

27.  Went  to  the  Barbacue45  at  Accatinck.46 

41  Mr.  Moylan — as  no  first  name  is  given,  or  indication  as  to  business  or 
residence,  the  person  can  not  be  identified  with  certainty.    He  is,  however, 
presumed  to  have  been  from  Philadelphia  and  one  of  four  brothers ;  two, 
John  and  Stephen,  served  in  the  Revolution ;  the  latter  for  a  time  was  aid- 
de-camp  to  Gen.  Washington  and  rose  to  the  rank  of  a  brigadier-general. 
Chastellux,  in  his  travels  in  America,  mentions  the  family  in  compli- 
mentary terms. 

42  Col.  John  Fitzgerald,  merchant  of  Alexandria,  was  a  native  of  Ireland. 
He  was  well  educated  and  full  of  commercial  enterprise,  stable  in  his 
purposes  and  friendships,  and  fully  identified  himself  with  the  people  of 
the  town  and  surrounding  country.     He  was  married  to  a  Miss  Digges, 
near  Bladensburg.    He  conducted  a  large  and  successful  shipping  and 
mercantile  business  and,  to  the  close  of  his  life,  deserved  and  enjoyed  the 
confidence  of  the  community.    At  one  time  he  was  mayor  of  Alexandria. 
He  bought  large  quantities  of  fish,  flour  and  other  products  from  the  Mount 
Vernon  estate  and  shipped  them,  as  opportunity  and  market  offered,  to 
other  localities.     He  was  a  patriot  in  the  Revolution  and,  for  a  time,  was 
on  Gen.  Washington's  staff,  and  in  this  position  was  in  the  battles  of 
Monmouth  and  Princeton.     (See  Recollections  of  Washington,  by  Custis,  pp. 
190, 192  and  452.)   He  was  on  terms  of  friendly  intercourse  and  correspond- 
ence with  A.  Lee,  R.  H.  Lee,  Robert  Morris,  George  Mason  and  others. 
He  died  in  Alexandria. 

43  "  Belvoir,"  the  residence  and  estate  of  the  Hon.  William  Fairfax,  was 
situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Potomac  and  was  described  by  Wash- 
ington as  "  within  full  view  of  Mount  Vernon,  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful 
seats  on  the  river."     (Letter  to  Sir  John  Sinclair,  December  11,  1796.)    The 
estate  was  founded  by  William  Fairfax,  cousin  and  agent  of  Lord  Thomas 
Fairfax,  of  Green  way  Court,  Virginia.     On  the  death  of  the  proprietor,  in 
1757,  it  descended  to  his  son,  Col.  George  W.  Fairfax,  who  from  youth 
was  the  friend  and  neighbor  of  George  Washington.     In  1773  the  colonel 
went  to  England  and,  not  returning,  the  place  was  advertised  for  rent 
and  the  furniture  was  sold. 

44  Mrs.  Ann  Slaughter,  of  Fairfax  County,  Va. 

46  The  barbecue  feast  was  a  much  more  popular  observance  among  the 
people  in  colonial  times  than  at  present.  The  animal  selected  for  such  a 
celebration  was  usually  a  small-sized  bullock,  although  occasionally  the 
pig,  bear,  deer,  or  sheep  was  selected  and  roasted  entire.  Such  feasts 
were  now  and  then  given  by  societies,  political  parties,  and  by  individuals 
to  popularize  some  measure  or  rejoice  over  a  success  gained. 

46  Accotink,  a  hamlet  of  a  few  houses,  was  situated  on  the  left  bank  of 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.       125 

28.  Went  to  Pohick  Church— Messrs-  Stuart,47  Herbert,48 
Mease,49  Doctr-  Jenifer50  Mr-  Stone51  &  Mr-  Digges52  dind  here—- 
the first  three  stayed  all  Mght 

a  stream  having  the  same  name,  which  rises  near  Fairfax  Court  House 
and  empties  into  Pohick  Bay,  on  the  Potomac.  The  village  is  mainly 
made  up  of  the  mills,  a  blacksmith's  shop,  a  country  store  and  the  few 
dwellings  these  enterprises  inspired. 

47  (David)  Stuart  was  a  planter  in  Fairfax  County.     Beside  the  family 
of  Stuarts  in  this  county,  there  was  a  still  more  numerous  one  of  Stewarts 
in  Prince  William  County,  Va.     Dr.  David  Stuart  married  Mrs.  Eleanor 
"Nelly"  (Calvert),  widow  of  John  Parke  Custis  and  mother  of  George 
Washington  Parke  Custis.     In  his  will,  Washington  remembers  the  doctor 
in  the  following  terms:  "To  David  Stuart  I  give  my  large  Shaving  and 
dressing  table  and  my  telescope." 

48  William  Herbert,  a  native  of  Ireland,  born  1743,  came  to  America  in 
his  youth  and  finally  settled  in  Alexandria,  Va.,  in  1772.     He  was  ener- 
getic and  soon  became  a  successful  business  man  and  died,  regretted, 
February  24,  1818.     His  correct  habits,  intelligence  and  capacity  for  the 
discharge  of  business  soon  placed  him  among  the  leading  merchants  of 
Alexandria.     He  married  the  daughter  of  John  Carlyle,  esq.    In  1798  he 
was  advanced  to  the  presidency  of  the  Bank  of  Alexandria,  in  which  he 
had  been  a  director  for  years.    He  was  on  terms  of  friendly  intercourse 
with  Gen.  Washington,  as  were  also  his  wife  and  children  with  the  entire 
Mount  Vernon  household. 

49  Mr.  Mease  was  possibly  from  the  valley  of  Virginia,  as  Washington, 
when  at  Berkeley  Springs  with  his  family  in  1769,  bought  a  horse,  saddle 
and  bridle  from  a  planter  of  this  name  for  £21 10«.,  as  per  cashbook.    The 
first  name  of  the  gentleman  is  not  given  by  Washington. 

60  Dr.  Daniel  Jenifer,  son  of  Daniel  and  Elizabeth  (Hanson)  Jenifer,  was 
born  in  Kent  County,  Md.,  January  25,  1756,  and  died  1809.  Having 
studied  medicine,  he  settled  to  practice  in  St.  Marys  County.  On  the 
breaking  out  of  the  war  of  the  Revolution  he  was  commissioned  a  surgeon 
in  the  Continental  Line  26th  August,  1776,  and  served  until  1782.  He 
ranked  as  surgeon  in  the  general  hospital,  and  is  recorded  as  a  member  of 
the  Maryland  Society  of  the  Cincinnati.  In  1785  he  married  Sarah,  daugh- 
ter of  Dr.  James  Craik.  They  had  a  number  of  children.  (See  Hanson's 
Old  Kent.) 

51  Thomas  Stone,  a  signer  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  was  born 
at  Pointon  Manor,  Charles  County,  Md.,  1743,  and  died  in  Alexandria 
County,  Va.,  October  5,  1787.  He  was  descended,  through  David,  from 
Gov.  William  Stone,  of  Maryland,  of  the  Cromwell  protectorate  period. 
He  received  a  classical  education,  largely  from  private  teachers,  and  then 
studied  law  with  Thomas  Johnson  in  Annapolis,  Md.  He  began  the  prac- 
tice of  his  profession  in  Frederick,  Md.,  but  in  a  few  years  removed  to  Port 
Tobacco,  where  he  purchased  a  plantation.  He  attended  the  several  courts 
from  there  as  business  required,  was  an  early  and  zealous  patriot  in  the 
Revolution.  In  1771  he  married  Margaret,  daughter  of  Dr.  Gustavus 
Brown,  of  Port  Tobacco,  a  lady  of  superior  ability,  who  died  June,  1787. 
Mr.  Stone  was  sent  to  Congress  continuously  from  1775  to  1779,  and  again 


126  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

29.  The  above  Gentn>  went  away  after  Breakfast. — 

30.  Col°.  Pendleton,53  MX  Henry,54  Col°.  Mason  55  &  Mr.  Tho8. 
Triplet56  came  in  the  Evens.  &  stayd  all  Night 

31.  All  the  above  Gentlemen  dind  here,  after  which  with 
Col°.  Pendleton,  &  Mr.  Henry  I  set  out  on  my  journey  for 
Phila.57  &  reachd  uppr.  Marlbro.58 


in  1783.  He  was  on  terms  of  the  most  friendly  relations  with  Washington, 
and  doubtless  often  discussed  the  political  situation  and  needs  of  the 
country  with  him.  The  draft  of  the  plan  of  the  confederation  adopted  by 
the  States  was  largely  from  his  pen.  When  not  in  Congress  he  was  sent  to 
the  Maryland  senate.  He  was  influential  in  the  passage  of  laws  against 
primogeniture  in  the  descent  of  estates.  He  was  an  eloquent  speaker 
and  a  profound  lawyer.  He  left  no  children. 

52  William  Digges,  esq.,  was  a  wealthy  planter  on  the  Potomac,  in 
Maryland.  His  estate,  "Warburton,"  was  in  full  view  from  the  eastern 
portico  of  Mount  Vernon.  The  plantation  included  the  site  of  Fort  Wash- 
ington, which  is  nearly  due  east  across  the  Potomac  from  the  Mount 
Vernon  mansion.  Mr.  Digges,  as  was  the  custom  with  the  planters  on 
the  navigable  waters  of  the  Potomac,  kept  his  own  boats  and  trained 
servants,  dressed  in  uniform,  accustomed  to  rowing  and  sailing  them. 
The  " Mount  Vernon"  and  "  Warburton"  estates  indulged  in  this  custom; 
intercourse  was  therefore  easy,  frequent  and  friendly  between  the  pro- 
prietors and  their  families,  of  which  this  diary  gives  abundant  evidence. 

63  Col.  Edmund  Pendleton,  statesman,  was  born  in  Caroline  County,  Va., 
September  9.  1721,  and  died  in  Richmond,  Va.,  October  23,  1803.  His 
grandfather,  Philip,  came  from  England  to  Virginia,  in  1676.  Edmund 
had  in  youth  but  limited  educational  advantages,  but  a  naturally  strong 
and  inquisitive  mind,  with  a  determined  will  and  love  for  accurate  knowl- 
edge, surmounted  these  obstacles  An  effective  schooling  was  afforded 
him  in  the  clerk's  office  of  Caroline  County,  in  which  he  served  for  several 
years  as  the  deputy  of  Benjamin  Robinson.  In  1744,  he  was  admitted  to 
practice  law,  and  from  the  start  attracted  attention,  not  only  as  a  speaker, 
but  also  for  his  knowledge  of  law  and  of  history.  He  had  throughout 
life  a  wonderful  capacity  for  continued  and  unremitting  attention  to  busi- 
ness and  to  study.  In  1751,  he  was  made  a  county  justice ;  in  1752,  elected 
to  a  seat  in  the  House  of  Burgesses,  and  was  soon  recognized  as  one  of  the 
leading  members.  In  1764,  he  was  placed  upon  the  committee  to  memori- 
alize the  King  on  the  affairs  of  the  Colony.  In  1766,  as  a  lawyer,  he  gave 
the  opinion  that  the  Stamp  Act  was  void  for  want  of  constitutional 
authority  for  Parliament  to  pass  it  and,  therefore,  it  did  not  bind  the 
inhabitants  of  Virginia.  He  was  placed  in  1773  on  the  committee  of  cor- 
respondence of  Virginia;  made  county  lieutenant,  with  the  rank  of 
colonel  in  1774,  and  the  same  year  was  selected  by  the  convention  of  Vir- 
ginia a  delegate  to  the  Continental  Congress  to  be  held  at  Philadelphia, 
Pa.,  which  he  attended.  In  1775,  he  was  chosen  president  of  the  conven- 
tion of  Virginia,  which  met  December  of  that  year.  In  May,  1776,  he 
drew  up  the  resolution  instructing  the  Virginia  delegates  to  propose  the 
Declaration  of  Independence.  He  was  at  this  time  president  of  the  Com- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.       127 

mittee  of  Safety.  His  conduct  in  every  public  position  was  characterized 
by  wisdom,  moderation  and  ability.  On  the  organization  of  the  State 
government,  he  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  house,  and  was  selected  along 
with  Chancellor  Wythe  and  Thomas  Jefferson  to  revise  the  laws  of  Vir- 
ginia. In  1777,  by  an  unfortunate  fall  from  his  horse,  he  was  crippled  for 
life.  In  1779,  he  was  made  president  of  the  Court  of  Appeals.  In  1788, 
he  presided  at  the  State  convention  which  adopted  the  Constitution  of 
the  United  States,  which  he  advocated  in  a  masterly  argument. 

64  Patrick  Henry,  orator  and  statesman,  was  born  at  "  Studley,"  Hanover 
County,  Va.,  May  29,  1736,  and  died  at  "  Red  Hill,"  Charlotte  County,  Va., 
June  6,  1799.     He  was  a  son  of  Col.  John,  of  Virginia,  and  grandson  of 
Alexander  Henry,  of  Aberdeen,  Scotland.    Patrick  was  mainly  educated 
in  the  classics  and  mathematics  by  his  father  and  by  private  teachers. 
Owing  to  his  father's  financial  reverses,  a  college  course  was  not  practica- 
ble, and  at  the  age  of  15  he  began  a  mercantile  career,  which,  however, 
was  not  prosperous.    He  then  took  seriously  to  the  study  of  law  and  was 
married  at  the  age  of  18  to  a  Miss  Shelton,  whose  father  kept  a  public 
house.    His  practice  as  a  lawyer  was  for  a  time  limited.    In,  1763,  he  was 
employed  in  what  is  historically  known  as  the  "Parson's  Cause."    Before 
the  court  his  force  of  reasoning  and  the  legal  knowledge  he  evinced,  at 
once  placed  him  in  the  very  front  rank  of  his  profession.    In  1764,  he 
removed  to  Louisa  Court  House,  the  better  to  attend  to  his  duties  as  a 
lawyer,  and  the  following  year  was  sent  to  the  House  of  Burgesses.    On 
May  29, 1765,  nine  days  after  he  qualified,  he  moved  a  series  of  resolutions 
defining  the  rights  of  the  colonies  and  stigmatizing  the  Stamp  Act  as  un- 
constitutional and  subversive  of  British  and  American  liberty.    This  sur- 
prisingly bold  step  at  first  confounded  both  the  friends  of  the  Colonies 
and  of  the  Crown  and  led  to  much  opposition  on  the  part  of  old  leaders. 
However,  after  a  speech  of  almost  inspired  eloquence,  which  was  described 
by  Thomas  Jefferson  as  surpassing  anything  he  had  ever  heard,  five  of  his 
resolutions  were  carried.    The  whole  series  was  published  and  speedily 
acquiesced  in  by  the  public.    After  this,  the  enforcement  of  the  tax  bill 
was  impracticable  and  he,  at  once,  became  a  leader.    In  May,  1773,  he, 
with  Thomas  Jefferson,  Richard  Henry  Lee  and  Dabney  Carr,  carried 
through  the  House  a  resolution  establishing  committees  of  correspondence 
which  gave  unity  and  cohesion  to  the  patriots  of  the  Revolution  in  all  the 
Colonies  and  led  to  the  Continental  Congress  of  1774.    At  the  convention 
of  Virginia  in  1775,  he  moved  that  the  militia  be  organized  and  the  colony 
be  put  in  a  state  of  defense.    He  was  at  once  put  at  the  head  of  military 
affairs  in  Virginia  and  commanded  the  forces  that  demanded  the  return 
of  the  powder  taken  from  the  magazine  of  Virginia  by  Governor  Dunmore, 
or  its  payment  in  money.    In  the  re-organization  of  the  State,  in  1776,  he 
was  chosen  governor  and  was  one  of  the  great  powers  in  support  of  the 
Revolution.    He  was  a  member  of  the  convention  that  adopted  the  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  States  but  opposed  its  acceptance  unless  amended, 
pointing  out  its  danger  and  defects  with  great  clearness.    Washington 
tendered  him  the  office  of  Secretary  of  State,  which  he  declined.    He  was 
elected  to  the  United  States  Senate  but  died  before  taking  his  seat. 

65  George  Mason,  esq.,  statesman  and  planter  of  "Gunston  Hall,"  Fair- 
fax County,  Va.,  was  born  in  1725,  on  his  father's  estate  situated  in 


128  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


"  Dogue's  Neck,"  known  also  as  "  Mason's  Neck,"  then  in  Stafford  County, 
Va.,  and  died  at  his  residence  "Guuston  Hall,"  October  7,  1792.  His 
education,  which  was  good,  was  mainly  received  at  home  from  private 
tutors.  He  was  twice  married;  first,  April,  1750,  to  Ann,  daughter  of  Col. 
William  Eilbeck,  of  Charles  County,  Md.,  by  whom  he  had  five  sons  and 
four  daughters ;  second  to  Sarah,  daughter  of  George  Brent,  of  " Wood- 
stock," Va.  Shortly  after  his  first  marriage  he  built  " Gunston  Hall"  on 
his  paternal  landed  inheritance.  He  took  an  active  and  interested  part  in 
church  affairs,  and  in  1765  was  elected,  together  with  George  Washington, 
a  vestryman  of  Pohick  Church.  He  was  a  man  of  good  habits,  strong  mind, 
retentive  memory  and  strict  attention  to  business,  with  a  special  aptness 
for  system  and  the  formulation  of  legal  documents  and  bills  for  enactment 
of  laws.  In  1769,  he  drew  up  the  non- importation  resolutions  which  were 
presented  by  Washington  in  the  Virginia  assembly  and  which  were  unani- 
mously adopted.  One  of  these  pledged  the  Virginia  planters  to  purchase 
no  slaves  brought  into  the  country  after  November  1  of  that  year.  In 
support  of  the  rights  of  Virginia,  Mr.  Mason  printed  a  pamphlet  with 
the  title  "  Extracts  from  the  Virginia  Charter,  with  some  remarks  upon 
them."  At  a  meeting  of  the  people  of  Fairfax  County,  July  18,  1774,  pre- 
sided over  by  George  Washington,  he  presented  a  series  of  twenty-four 
resolutions  reviewing  the  whole  ground  of  controversy  between  Great 
Britain  and  the  Colonies,  recommending  a  congress  of  all  the  Colonies  and 
urging  non- intercourse  with  the  mother  country.  Later,  the  same  prin- 
ciples were  fully  affirmed  by  the  Continental  Congress.  He  declined  a 
seat  in  Congress  but  served  on  the  Committee  of  Safety,  which  was  charged 
with  the  executive  government  of  Virginia.  In  1776  he  drafted  the  famous 
bill  of  rights  and  also  the  constitution  of  Virginia.  Madison  said  that 
Mason  was  the  ablest  debater  he  had  ever  heard.  In  1777,  he  was  elected 
to  Congress  but  declined.  Ten  years  later  he  was  a  member  of  the  com- 
mittee that  drafted  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  but  did  not  sign 
it  because,  as  he  said,  it  endangered  the  sovereignty  of  the  States.  He  was 
also  a  member  of  the  committee  of  the  State  which  adopted  the  Constitution 
and  again  opposed  its  adoption,  but  without  success.  He  was  elected  the 
first  United  States  Senator  from  Virginia,  but  declined.  He  was  referred 
to  by  Thomas  Jefferson  as  a  man  of  the  first  order  of  wisdom.  Certainly 
George  Mason  deserves  to  be  remembered  as  one  of  the  purest  of  patriots 
and  wisest  of  statesmen. 

66  Thomas  Triplett,  was  a  planter  of  Fairfax  County,  Va.    He  is  believed 
to  have  been  the  son  of  Francis  Triplett,  a  freeholder  and  voter  in  Fairfax 
County,  in  1748.    Thomas  had  a  brother,  William ;  and  possibly,  Philip, 
of  Fairfax  County,  was  also  a  brother.    Thomas  owned  the  fine  plantation 
known  as  "Round  Hill,"  adjoining  Washington's  Muddy  Hole  plantation. 
The  Tripletts  frequently  joined  Washington  in  a  fox  chase.    Thomas  Trip- 
lett was  one  of  the  vestrymen  of  Pohick  Church,  a  member  of  the  Masonic 
lodge  to  which  Washington  belonged,  and  attended  with  the  Alexandria 
Washington  lodge  the  funeral  of  the  latter. 

67  Philadelphia,  Pa. ,  because  of  its  central  location  as  to  the  other  col- 
onies, as  well  as  on  account  of  the  known  advocacy  of  the  rights  of  the 
provinces  by  many  leading  Pennsylvanians  in  the  controversy  with  the 
Crown,  was  selected  for  the  meeting  of  the  Continental  Congress,  which 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      129 
Ace*  of  the  Weather  59  in  August 

1.  Exceding  warm. — About  4  oclock  a  fine  Shower  of  Earn, 
with  thunder  wch.    Coold  the  air  a  little 

2.  Tolerably  pleasant  in  the  forenoon — but  warm  afterwards 
with  but  little  wind 

3.  Very  warm  and  clear  with  but  little  wind 

4.  Again  warm  with  appearances  of  Bain  but  none  fell. 

5.  Warm  with  moderate  Showers  in  the  Afternoon  &  Xight 

6.  Close  warm  all  day  with  frequent  Shower's. — 

7.  Very  hot  with  a  heavy  Rain  ab*.  one  oclock — still  warm 
afterwards 

8.  Close  &  warm  with  appearances  of  Eain  but  none  fell. 

9.  Earning  more  or  less  all  the  Morning. — afternoon  warm. 

10.  Foggy  Morning  but  no  Eain. — warm. 

11th  Clear  and  Warm,  with  but  little  Wind  &  that  South- 
erly.— 

12.  Much  such  a  day  as  yesterday. — 

13.  Cool  in  the  Morning,  and  Evening  with  the  Wind  N°. 
Easterly  with  some  Eain  at  Mght. — Midday  warm 

14.  Lowering  Morning — but  clear  &  very  warm  afterwards 
with  very  little  Wind — 

15.  No  Wind,  but  clear  &  exceeding  hot. — 

16.  Again  warm   with  but  little  wind — in  the  afternn.   a 
shower  or  two  of  Eain 

17.  Very  warm  with  Eain  at  Night. — 

18.  Again  warm  with  but  little  Wind  &  that  Southerly 

19.  Warm  again  and  clear,  after  the  Morning  which  was 
lowering  with  some  appearances  of  Eain. — 

20.  Very  warm  with  little  or  no  Wind. — 

21.  Much  such  a  day  as  the  former. — 

22.  Wind  very  fresh  from  the  S°.  West — otherwise  exceeding 
warm. — 


had  been  resolved  upon  by  the  people  of  the  Colonies,  and  called  to  meet 
in  that  city  September  5,  1774. 

58  Upper  Marlboro  is  the  capital  of  Prince  George  County,  Md.  The 
town  is  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  western  branch  of  the  Patuxent 
River  about  2  miles  above  the  fork  and  20  miles  southwest  of  Annapolis, 
on  the  main  road  from  lower  Maryland. 

69  It  was  Washington's  habit  for  many  years  to  note  briefly,  in  a  gen- 
eral way,  in  his  diary,  the  condition  of  the  weather  for  each  day.  The 
comments  on  the  weather,  during  some  years,  are  made  in  the  same  book 
but  separately  as  to  heading,  thus  repeating  dates  for  this  purpose  in  his 
journal  of  daily  events  and  occurrences  as  is  shown  here. 

9 


130  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

23.  Lowering  in  the  Morning  with  fine  Showers  afterwards — 
wind  Northerly  &  a  little  Cool — 

24.  Misting  all  day — &  sometimes  Eain — in  the  Evening  a 
settled  Eain — Wind  at  N°.  East  but  not  much  of  it 

25.  Clouds  in  the  Morning,  but  clear  afterwards — Wind  at 
No.  West.— 

26.  Clear  and  very  pleasant  wind  at  N°.  West — 

27.  Pleasant  &  clear  with  but  little  wind 

28.  Clear  but  turning  warm  wind  Southerly 

29.  Warm  &  clear— Wind  Southerly 

30.  Very  warm — Wind  in  the  same  place  tho'  not  much  of  it 
Aug1.  31.  Exceeding  hot  with  very  little  Wind  &  that  South- 
erly.— 

Where,  how,  or  with  whom,  my  time — is  Spent. 

Septr.  1  Breakfasted  at  Queen  Anne60  —Dined  in  Anna- 
polis,61 &  lodged  at  Eock  Hall.— 62 

2.  Din'd  at  Eock  Hall  (waiting  for  my  Horses)63  &  lodged  at 
New  Town64  on  Chester65 

60  Queen  Anne  was  a  crossroad  hamlet  in  Prince  George  County,  Md., 
of  colonial  days,  which  did  not  grow  into  any  importance.     It  is  sit- 
uated near  the  Patuxent  River,  on  the  main  road  from  Georgetown  to 
Annapolis,  about  25  miles  from  the  former  and  10  miles  from  the  latter. 
It  appeared  in  Gary's  map  of  1822,  and  possibly  later,  but  is  now  without  a 
post-office  or  a  place  on  the  Gazette. 

61  Annapolis,  originally  known  as  Anne  Arundel  town;  later,  as  ''Port 
of  Annapolis,"  the  capital  of  the  State  of  Maryland  since  1694,  is  situated 
on  the  Chesapeake  Bay,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Severn  River.    Like  its  sister 
state  capital  at  Williamsburg,  it  was  early  noted  for  its  culture,  wealth 
and  fashion,  and  for  having  established  institutions  of  learning  for  the 
youth  of  the  provinces.     Virginia,  to  meet  the  requirements  of  her  settle- 
ments, changed  the  location  of  her  capital.     Maryland  has  persisted  in 
maintaining  her  old  seat  notwithstanding  the  developments  of  the  west 
erly  counties.    The  improved  methods  of  transportation  have  to  some 
extent  reconciled  her  citizens  to  the  location.     She  has  much  reason  to  be 
proud  of  her  history. 

62 "  Rock  Hall  "is  situated  on  the  left  shore  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay, 
between  Swan  Point  and  the  mouth  of  Chester  River,  in  Kent  County, 
Md.  Owing  to  a  protected  cove  at  a  favorable  landing  point,  it  was 
made  the  upper  or  northern  terminus  of  the  Annapolis  Packet  Ferry. 
A  fairly  good  hotel  was  also  kept  at  the  ferry.  From  here  there  was  a 
well-traveled  road  through  Chestertown,  by  the  head  of  Sassafras  Creek, 
to  New  Castle,  in  the  State  of  Delaware.  The  Rock  Hall  farm,  in  1774, 
was  owned  by  Richard  Spencer,  who  was  a  grandson  of  James  Spencer, 
of  Spencer  Hall,  on  Eastern  Neck  Island,  Kent  County,  Md.  A  part 
of  Rock  Hall  was  sold  to  James  Ringgold,  of  Huntingfield,  in  1779,  with 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.     131 

3.  Breakfasted  at  Down's66.— Bind  at  the  Buck  Tavern  (Car- 
sons)  67  &  lodged  at  Newcastle.68 

the  condition  that  no  other  ferry  should  ever  be  established  to  trench 
upon  the  ground  of  the  existing  one.  The  Rock  Hall  ferry  was  main- 
tained up  to  about  1846,  and  the  old  wharves  are  still  visible. 

63  Washington  took  two  horses  and  a  servant  with  him  to  Philadelphia 
(see  cash  look  of  expenses) ;  but  he  does  not  give  the  name  of  the  servant. 

64  New  Town,  on  the  Chester,  was  the  original  name  of  the  present 
Chestertown.     It  is  13  miles  from  Rock  Hall.     The  main  road  between 
the  places  is  practically  on  the  same  site  now  that  it  was  when  traveled 
by  Washington.     The  town  was  laid  out  by  authority  of  an  act  of  Mary- 
land, passed  in  1706,  and  was  named  in  the  law  "  New-Town."    Its  charter 
was  revised  in  1780,  and  the  name  Chestertown  given  to  it.    The  tavern 
at  which  Washington  and  the  other  delegates  who  went  to  the  Continental 
Congress  stopped  in  1774  is  still  standing.     It  occupies  the  corner  of  Can- 
non and  Prince  streets,  is  now  owned  by  Charles  T.  Westcott,  and  is 
changed  so  as  to  make  two  private  residences.     It  has  undergone  some  re- 
pairs and  the  external  appearance  is  slightly  altered,  but  not  so  the  inte- 
rior.   The  title  of  the  property,  in  1774,  was  in  the  name  of  Nathaniel 
Hynson.     It  was,  at  the  time,  a  notably  fine  hotel  with  a  large  ballroom, 
elaborately  paneled,  and  with  a  gallery  at  one  end  for  musicians.     Some  of 
the  moldings  on  mantels  and  casings  show  traces  of  fine  carving.     This  is 
the  same  house  in  which  tradition  says  Charles  Wilson  Peale,  the  artist, 
was  born  while  his  father  was  a  teacher  in  the  old  free  school  at  Chester- 
town.     The  town  was  at  that  time  a  port  of  entry  with  a  custom-house, 
which  is  still  standing.     The  merchants  of  the  town  conducted  a  very  con- 
siderable trade.     Private  capital  aided  by  the  government  of  Maryland 
conducted  a  large  armory  here  during  the  Revolutionary  war. 

65  Chester  River  is  a  deep,  broad,  navigable  stream,  without  marshes, 
making  up  from  the  eastern  shore  out  of  the  Chesapeake  Bay  in  a  north- 
easterly direction  nearly  to  the  dividing  line  between  the  States  of  Mary- 
land and  Delaware.     This  river  separates  and  is  the  boundary  between 
Kent  and  Queen  Anne  counties,  and  is  perhaps  at  present  the  most  noted 
breeding  grounds  of  the  famous  diamond-backed  terrapin.      Chestertown, 
situated  on  the  right  bank  of  this  river,  is  the  capital  of  Kent  County. 

66  A  Mr.  Downs  was  the    proprietor  of  a  tavern  at  Downs'  crossroads 
about  16  miles  from  Newtown,  now  Chestertown,  on  the  main  road  to  New 
Castle,  Del.,  and  Philadelphia.     It  was  near  the  point  now  known  as 
Galena,  near  the  Sassafras  River.     The  name  of  Downs  is  frequently  met 
with  in  the  early  records  of  Kent  County.    The  old  residents  of  Galena 
have  a  tradition  that  Gen.  Washington  had,  on  several  occasions,  patron- 
ized a  public  house  in  that  place  when  passing. 

67  Carson's  "Buck  Tavern"  was  probably  at  a  point  now  the  thriving 
village  of  Middletown  in  Delaware,  and  about  18  miles  southwest  of  New 
Castle. 

68  New  Castle,  in  New  Castle  County,  Del.,  is  situated  on  the  right  bank 
of  the  Delaware  River,  about  6  miles  south  of  Wilmington,  and  34  from 
Philadelphia.  It  is  the  oldest  town  on  the  river,  having  been  founded  by 
the  Swedes  as  early  as  1627. 


132  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

4.  Breakfasted  at  Christeen  Ferry69  Dined  at  Chester — 70  & 
lodged  at  Doctr.  Shippens's  71  In  Phil",  after  Supping  at  ye 
New  Tavern.72 


69  Christiana  Ferry : — It  is  probable  that  the  site  of  this  ferry  is  now  in- 
cluded within  the  boundary  of  the  city  of  Wilmington,  Del. 

70  Chester,  originally  called  Upland,  is  the  capital  of  Delaware  County, 
Pa.     It  is  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Delaware  river,  15  miles  be- 
low Philadelphia.     The  town  is  an  old  one  and  enjoys  the  distinction  of 
having  had  the  first  legislature  of  Pennsylvania  to  meet  in  it  shortly  after 
Wm.  Penn's  arrival.     It  has  of  late  years  become  an  important  manufac- 
turing center,  and  is  rapidly  becoming  a  sort  of  annex  to  the  city  of  Phila- 
delphia. 

71  William  Shippen,  M.  D.,  the  younger,  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  Octo- 
ber 21,  1736,  and  died  in  Germantown,  Pa.,  July  11,  1808.     He   was  a 
graduate  of  Princeton  in  1754,  and  shortly  after  began  the  study  of  medi- 
cine with  his  father.     He,  however,  completed  his  studies  under  Drs.  Wm. 
and  John  Hunter  of  London,  and  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  where 
he  graduated  M.  D.  in  1761.     Returning  to  Philadelphia  in  1762  he  began 
the  practice  of  his  profession.     November  16,  1762,  he  opened  a  systematic 
course  of  lectures  on  anatomy,  the  first  in  America.     They  were  well  pat- 
ronized and  pointed  the  way  to  the  founding  of  a  medical  college  which, 
in  1765,  was  engrafted  upon  the  College  of  Philadelphia.     Dr.  Shippen  was 
elected  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  September  23,  1765.     He  was 
thoroughly  American  in  his  principles  and  a  patriot  in  the  Revolution. 
On  the  15th  of  July,  1776,  he  was  appointed  chief  physician  of  the  Flying 
Camp  of  the  Continental  army.     On  the  llth  of  April  he  was  commissioned 
director-general  of  all  the  military  hospitals  for  the  armies  of  the  United 
States.     Although  chosen  to  this  position  without  a  dissenting  voice,  the 
summary  displacement  of  Surgeon-General  John  Morgan  to  give  him  the 
place,  without  charge  or  knowledge  of  the  movement  to  the  incumbent 
aroused  suspicion  of  injustice  or  at  least  hasty  action  on  the  part  of  Con- 
gress which,  in  time,  reacted  unfavorably  to  Dr.  Shippen,  and  finally  led  to 
his  resignation  January  3,  1781.    However,  while  filling  the  position,  its 
duties  were  ably  performed.     On  the  fusion  of  the  College  of  Philadelphia 
and  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  he  was  continued  a  member  of  the 
faculty  until  1806  and  remained  one  of  the  staff  physicians  to  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Hospital  until  1802.    He  was  for  more  than  forty  years  a  member  of  the 
Philosophical  Society.     His  acquaintance  with  Gen.  Washington  began  in 
1756  and  continued  cordial  and  warm  to  the  close  of  his  life.     John  Adams, 
in  his  diary  of  September  20,  says  Col.  R.  H.  Lee  lodged  at  Dr.  Shippen's. 
It  may  be  that  Gen.  Washington  also  continued  to  lodge  there  throughout 
the  sitting  of  Congress. 

72  "New  Tavern"  was  so  named  because  it  was  built  as  recently  as  1770, 
but  was  more  properly  and  generally  known  as  "  The  City  Tavern."   It  was 
situated  on  South  Second,   near  Walnut  street.     For  many   years  it  re- 
mained the  largest  hotel  in  the  city,  and  the  gathering  place  for  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Continental  Congress.     It  was  from  this  house  on  the  5th  of 
September,  1774,  says  John  Adams  in  his  diary,  that  "At  10  o'clock  the 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.     133 

5.  Breakfasted  and  Dined  at  Doctr.   Shippers — Spent  ye 
Evens  at  Tavern 

6.  Dined  at  the  New  Tavern — after  being  in  Congress73  all 
day. 

7.  Dined  at  Mr.  Pleasants74  and  spent  the  Evening  in  a  Club75 
at  the  New  Tavern. — 

delegates  all  met  at  the  City  Tavern,  and  walked  to  Carpenter's  Hall." 
Within  an  hour  afterwards  the  First  Continental  Congress  was  success- 
fully organized  by  the  selection  of  Peyton  Randolph  as  president,  and 
Charles  Thomson  as  secretary. 

"This  was  a  congress  of  delegates  fresh  from  the  people  and  untram- 
meled  by  instructions.  The  advisableness  of  a  confederated  union  between 
all  the  English  colonies  for  their  better  protection  was  early  felt  by  the 
leading  minds  in  America.  Some  such  conference  and  union  had  been 
recommended  in  New  England  as  early  as  1643  and  again  by  William  Penn 
in  1696-'97.  In  1698  Charles  D'  Avenant  made  similar  propositions  as  did 
others  at  different  dates.  Daniel  Cox,  in  1722,  laid  his  scheme  for  the  set- 
tlement and  security  of  New  Jersey  and  proposed  plans  for  a  union.  Lord 
Holderness,  the  English  secretary,  even  went  so  far  in  1753  as  to  recom- 
mend the  assemblies  of  the  several  colonies  to  send  committees  to  a  gen- 
eral convention  to  meet  at  Albany,  N.  Y.,  to  confer  with  each  other  and  to 
renew  treaties  with  the  Indians,  etc.  A  convention  thus  constituted  and 
sanctioned  by  the  ministry  actually  met  at  Albany  on  the  19th  of  June, 
1754.  Perhaps  the  most  noteworthy  thing  that  they  did,  and  which  was 
not  suggested  in  the  call,  was  the  consideration  of  the  importance  of  a 
permanent  union  among  the  colonies  and  the  formulation  of  a  plan  by  a 
committee  of  one  from  each  province  reported,  for  a  union  with  a  council 
of  48  members,  selected  from  the  several  colonies,  with  a  president  at  their 
head,  to  have  the  general  management  of  civil  and  military  affairs  in. 
America. 

The  conception  and  the  bringing  into  existence  of  the  Continental  Con- 
gress in  1774  was  almost  a  spontaneous  aspiration  and  desire  of  the  people 
of  the  several  colonies.  It  derived  its  powers  and  authority  directly  from  the 
people  in  free  hustings,  and  town  mass  meetings,  despite  crown  preroga- 
tives, or  authority  from  governors,  legislatures,  or  military  commanders. 
A  subscription  was  raised  in  the  Virginia  convention  to  cover  the  expenses 
of  the  delegates  to  be  sent  to  Philadelphia,  to  which  Washington  contrib- 
uted £100.  It  is  possible  that  this  was  returned,  as  the  expenses  of  the 
delegates  were  assumed  by  the  assembly  of  Virginia.  Before  adjourning 
the  convention  they  provided  for  another  Congress  to  meet  in  May,  1775. 
The  future  Congress  was  to  be  composed  of  delegates  from  the  provincial 
assemblies,  and  not  directly  from  the  people  as  was  the  first. 

74  Samuel  Pleasants,  a  relative  of  the  well-known  Pleasants  family  of 
Virginia,  who  was  in  religious  belief  of  the  Society  of  Friends.  A  son  of 
Samuel  Pleasants,  of  the  same  name,  removed  to  Richmond,  Va.,  and  for 
some  years  published  there  a  newspaper  called  The  Argus.  His  descendants 
still  reside  in  Richmond. 


134  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

8.  Dined  at  Mr.  Andw.  Allan's,76  &  spent  the  Evening  in 
my  own  Lodgings  77 

9.  Dined  at  Mr.  Tilghman's  78  &  spent  the  Evening  at  home 
(at  my  Lodge). 

75  In  the  early  times  in  America  a  club  or  company  was  frequently  im- 
provised on  short  notice,  by  individuals  brought  together  at  ordinaries, 
taverns  and  coffee  houses  for  a  dinner,  a  supper,  or  a  bowl  of  punch.    It 
is  understood  that  the  term  was  also  applied  to  a  mixed  drink,  furnished 
in  a  large  bowl  which  was  denominated  "The  Club"  by  the  assembly, 
whether  paid  for  by  one  or  jointly,  by  the  several  persons  partaking, 
whether  present  by  accident  or  by  invitation.     It  is,  however,  not  en- 
tirely clear  to  the  writer  whether  any  of  these  definitions  explains  the 
significance  of  the  term  "the  governor's  club,"  who,  it  is  inferred,  did 
not  even  sympathize  with  the  Continental  Congress,  and  what  its  ex- 
istence portended. 

76  Andrew  Allan,  esq.,  an  eminent  lawyer  of  Philadelphia,  was  born  in 
that  city  in  1740,  and  died  in  London,  England,  March  7,  1825.     He  was 
the  son  of  Chief-Justice  Allan.     After  receiving  a  superior  education  he 
studied  law  with  his  father  and  entered  upon  a  good  practice  in  his  native 
city.    In  1776  he  was  appointed  attorney -general  of  Pennsylvania.     His 
intelligence  and  progressive  spirit  placed  him  among  the  foremost  citizens 
in  every  enterprise,  and  when  a  committee  of  safety  in  Philadelphia  was 
chosen,  he  was  among  the  members.     He  was  one  of  three  appointed  by 
the  colony  to  go  to  New  York  and  advise  with  the  committee  of  safety  in 
that  colony  and  with  Gen.  Lee  in  regard  to  the  defense  of  that  city. 
He  was  apparently  a  strong  advocate  of  all  the  Congressional  measures 
until  the  British   army  possessed  themselves  of  the  city  of  New  York. 
Then  he  lost  courage,  entered  the  British  lines,  took  the  oath  of  allegiance 
to  the  King,  renouncing  those  he  had  taken  to  Congress,  and  went  to 
England.     His  property  in  Pennsylvania  was  confiscated,  but  he  was 
compensated  for  his  loyalty  to  the  crown  and  his  losses  in  America  by 
grants  from  the  British  Government  and  an  annual  pension  of  £400. 

77  It  is  quite    possible  that   Washington  may  have   secured  lodging 
elsewhere  after  a  stay  of  a  few  days  with  his  friend  Dr.  Shippen.     If  this 
surmise  be  correct,  the  diary  does  not  disclose  where  or  with  whom  he  se- 
cured apartments.     Adams,  in  his  diary,  says  Lee  lodged  at  Shippen's, 
which  gives  color  to  the  possibility  that  Washington  also  continued  at  Dr. 
Shippen's,  and  may  have  paid  for  his   accommodations.     As  the   term 
lodging  is  used,  it  implies  a  hired  room. 

78  James  Tilghman,  secretary  of  the  land  office  of  Pennsylvania,  1765- 
1775,  was  born  at  the  Hermitage,  the  family  seat,  in  Queen  Anne  County, 
Md.,  December  6,  1716,  and  died  in  Chestertown,  Md.,  August  24,  1793. 
After  receiving  a  classical  education  he  studied  law  and  for  a  time  prac- 
ticed at  the  Annapolis  bar,  but  in  1760  he  removed  to  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
to  practice  his  profession.     In  1765  John  Penn,  governor  of  Pennsylvania, 
appointed  him  secretary  of  the  land  office,  with  a  salary  of  £300  and  some 
office  fees;  he  held  this  position  down  to  the  Revolution.     In  1767  he  be- 
came a  member  of  the  Provincial  Council,  serving  until  the  exigencies  of 
the  Revolution  prevented  the  Council  sitting.     At  first  he  was  liberal  in 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      135 

10.  Dined  at  Mr.  Richd.  Penn's79 

11.  Dined  at  Mr.  Griffen's80 

12.  Dined  at  Mr.  James  Allan's81 

his  views  of  the  political  questions  discussed  between  the  British  Govern- 
ment and  the  colonies,  but  finally  came  to  be  regarded  as  a  loyalist. 
On  the  approach  of  the  British  army  to  Philadelphia,  in  1777,  he  was  ar- 
rested and  paroled  with  leave  to  visit  his  friends  in  Maryland  and  to  re- 
port in  Philadelphia  by  a  certain  date.  Before  the  time  elapsed  the  city 
was  in  the  possession  of  the  British.  In  May,  1778,  he  was  discharged 
from  parole.  Washington  and  the  whole  family  of  Tilghmans  were  on 
terms  of  friendship. 

79  Richard  Penn,  lieutenant-governor  of  Pennsylvania,  was  born  in  Eng- 
land 1735,  and  died  there  May  27, 1811.  He  was  a  student  for  some  time  at 
St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  entering  for  the  legal  profession,  but  did 
attain  to  any  degrees.  In  1763  he  came  to  Pennsylvania  with  his  brother 
John,  and  January  12,  1764,  qualified  as  a  councilor.  He  revisited  Eng- 
land for  a  couple  of  years,  and  was  while  there  appointed  by  his  uncle  and 
brother  lieutenant-governor,  returning  the  second  time  October  16,  1771. 
By  his  liberal  course  and  attention  to  duty  he  became  very  popular  with 
all  the  business  interests  of  this  colony.  He  and  his  brother  John  had  a 
dispute  as  to  the  construction  of  his  father's  will.  In  1773  he  was  super- 
seded in  office  by  John  Penn.  Both  the  Penns  favored  concessions  from 
the  British  Government,  as  relating  to  the  oppressive  acts  complained 
of  by  the  colonies,  and  joined  in  the  petition  of  1775  to  the  King,  which 
Mr.  R.  Penn  carried  with  him  to  England.  He  was  examined  by  the 
House  of  Lords  November  7,  1775,  and  gave  testimony  that  he  believed 
the  colonies  would  resist  the  home  Government  by  force  unless  an  accom- 
modation should  be  reached.  He  was  later  a  member  of  Parliament  from 
1796  to  1806.  He  married  a  Miss  Mary  Masters,  an  heiress  of  Pennsylva- 
nia. In  advanced  life,  however,  he  became  very  poor.  He  revisited  Penn- 
sylvania in  1808  for  the  last  time. 

«o Griffen.     No  data. 

81  James  Allan,  esq.,  of  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  the  third  son  of  Chief  Justice 
William  Allan  of  Pennsylvania,  was  born  in  that  State  1742,  and  died  1798. 
James  graduated  from  the  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1759,  after  which  he 
studied  law  with  Edward  Shippen,  and  then  spent  three  years  at  the  Tem- 
ple, in  London.  Returning  to  Philadelphia  he  began  to  practice  at  the 
bar,  and  was,  in  1767,  elected  a  member  of  common  council.  In  1776  he  was 
sent  to  the  State  assembly  from  Northampton  County.  James  Allan  be- 
gan a  diary  in  1776,  which  he  continued,  with  but  few  interruptions,  to 
the  time  of  his  death,  in  1798.  He  married,  in  1768,  Elizabeth,  only  child  of 
John  Lawrence.  His  diary  referred  to  may  be  seen  in  Vol.  LX  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Magazine  of  History.  Under  date  of  May  19,  1773,  we  find 
the  following  entry :  "  Gov.  Eden  and  Col.  Washington  are  in  town,  come  to 
the  races.  Water's  horse,  Herod,  won  the  £100  yesterday  &  Mr.  Delaney's 
Sultana  £50  today.  The  town  is  very  gay  &  invitations  frequent.  I  asked 
Gov.  Eden  and  Col.  Washington  to  dinner,  but  they  are  engaged  during  their 
stay."  Governor  owned  one  of  the  horses  that  ran  the  first  day  of  the  races. 
It,  however,  came  in  second.  The  winning  horse  was  owned  by  Israel 
Waters,  and  was  known  by  the  name  of  "King  Herod." 


136  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

13.  Dined  at  Mr.  Tho8.  Mifflin's82 

Sepr.  14.  Eid  over  the  Provence  Island.83  &  dind  at  Mr.  Wm. 
Hamiltons84 

83  Thomas  Mifflin,  major-general  in  the  Revolution,  was  born  in  Philadel- 
phia in  1744,  and  died  in  Lancaster,  Pa.,  January  20, 1800.  He  was  a  grad- 
uate of  the  College  of  Philadelphia  in  1750.  Shortly  after  that  he  entered 
a  counting  house  in  which  his  brother  was  a  partner.  In  1765  he  traveled 
in  Europe,  and  on  his  return  was  taken  into  the  firm.  He  had  a  popular 
manner,  with  a  taste  for  public  life,  and  in  1772  he  was  sent  to  the  legis- 
lature. In  1774  he  was  a  delegate  to  the  Continental  Congress.  On  the 
receipt  of  the  news  of  the  fight  at  Lexington  in  a  town  mass  meeting  he 
publicly  advocated  resolute  action.  When  troops  were  enlisted,  he  assisted 
in  organizing  and  drilling  them,  and  was  made  major  of  the  First  Regi- 
ment. He  was  born  and  reared  a  Quaker,  and,  of  course,  this  conduct  sev- 
ered his  church  connection.  Washington,  on  assuming  command  of  the 
Continental  army,  chose  him  as  his  first  aide-de-camp,  and  in  that  rank  he 
accompanied  the  General  to  Cambridge.  In  July,  1775,  he  was  made 
quartermaster-general.  After  the  evacuation  of  Boston,  by  the  British,  he 
was  made,  August  19,  1776,  a  brigadier-general,  and  assigned  to  the  com- 
mand of  a  part  of  the  Pennsylvania  troops.  He  was  a  man  of  prompt 
action,  courage  and  perseverance.  In  the  retreat  from  Long  Island  he 
commanded  the  rear  guard.  Later,  in  compliance  to  the  resolutions  of 
Congress,  he  resumed  the  duties  of  quartermaster-general.  In  November 
he  was  sent  by  Washington  to  Congress  to  represent  the  critical  condition 
of  the  army.  In  January,  1777,  he  made  a  tour  of  the  principal  towns  of 
Pennsylvania,  and  by  his  stirring  oratory  aroused  a  spirit  among  the  peo- 
ple to  enter  the  army.  For  a  time  he  shared  the  feeling  that  Washington 
was  too  slow.  In  1777  he  was  placed  by  Congress  on  the  Board  of  War, 
but  was  retired  in  1778.  It  was  charged  that  the  suffering  at  Valley 
Forge  was  aggravated  by  the  inefficiency  of  the  Quartermaster's  Depart- 
ment, but  this  lacked  proof.  After  the  achievement  of  independence  he 
entered  Congress,  and  was  president  of  that  body  when  Washington  re- 
signed his  commission,  and  replied  to  him  in  appropriate  and  eloquent 
terms.  In  1787  he  was  a  member  of  the  convention  that  drafted  the  Con- 
stitution of  the  United  States.  In  1789  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
supreme  executive  council  of  Pennsylvania,  and  succeeded  to  its  presi- 
dency. When  the  constitution  of  Pennsylvania  was  adopted,  he  was 
elected  her  first  governor  under  it. 

83  Province  Island  was  once  known  as  "  Fishers  Island."  It  contained 
342  acres,  and  was,  on  account  of  its  isolation,  convenience  and  suitable- 
ness for  a  quarantine  hospital  and  pest-house  purposes,  bought  by  the 
province  of  Pennsylvania  in  1742  for  the  sum  of  £1,700.  The  island  is  on 
the  southwest  side  of  the  Schuylkill  River,  near  its  mouth.  After  this 
purchase  the  island  was  known  as  "  Provence  Island/'  but  since  the  Rev- 
olution and  the  adoption  of  the  State  constitution,  it  has  been  named 
as  "  State  Island."  The  purpose  of  Washington's  visit  is  not  disclosed; 
whether  it  was  to  see  the  buildings  erected  by  the  province  for  the  care 
of  the  sick  of  contagious  diseases,  arriving  by  sea,  or  whether  it  was  to 
inspect  the  gardens  and  farming  conducted  there  on  the  part  of  the  island 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774— TONER.      137 

15.  Dined  at  my  Lodgings 

16.  Dined  at  the  State  House85  at  an  Entertainment  given 
by  the  City  to  the  Members  of  the  Congress. — 

17.  Dined  at  Mr.  Dickinsons86  about  2  Miles  from  Town 

not  then  required  for  hospital  purposes,  and  which  was  rented  and  culti- 
vated as  a  truck  garden,  is  left  to  speculation. 

84  William  Hamilton,  esq.,  of  Philadelphia,  was  the  son  of  the  second 
Andrew  Hamilton,  and  inherited  from  him  "The  Woodlands,"  on  the 
Schuylkill,  now  West  Philadelphia.  He  was  a  man  of  large  wealth  in 
well-located  real  estate  near  the  cities  of  Lancaster  and  Philadelphia.  He 
was  a  man  of  cultivated  tastes,  fond  of  botany,  and  took  pleasure  in  orna- 
mental gardening.  He  built  himself  an  elegant  residence  shortly  before 
the  Revolution.  He  was  one  of  the  earliest  patrons  of  art  in  the  country, 
and  collected  many  fine  pictures.  During  the  progress  of  the  Revolution 
he  was  suspected  of  having  become  inimical  to  the  cause  of  the  colonies, 
and  was  arrested  and  tried,  but  acquitted.  He  died  at  "The  Woodlands" 
in  1824.  His  highly  cultivated  and  beautiful  farm  greatly  interested 
Washington.  He  never  married. 

88  The  "State  House,"  now  more  widely  known  as  "Independence  Hall," 
is  owned  by  the  corporation  of  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  and  is  one  of  the 
most  revered  Colonial  landmarks  in  our  country.  It  was  designed  on  a 
liberal  scale,  its  erection  begun  in  1729,  and  completed  in  1735.  When 
this  enterprise  was  projected  only  about  half  the  square — the  Chestnut 
street  front  had  been  secured  to  the  province,  but  in  1750  the  remainder 
of  the  square  fronting  on  Walnut  street  was  bought.  The  building  was  at 
first  used  for  the  various  offices  of  the  Government,  but  from  1747  it  was 
used  also  for  the  meetings  of  the  State  assembly,  until  the  capital  of  Penn- 
sylvania was  established  at  Harrisburg  (1812).  In  1816  the  legislature 
of  Pennsylvania  authorized  the  sale  of  the  State  House  and  the  square 
of  ground  to  the  city  corporation  of  Philadelphia  for  public  purposes 
for  $70,000.  It  is  inferred  that,  even  prior  to  this,  either  the  city,  or  her 
influential  citizens,  had  some  voice  in  the  control  and  use  to  which  the 
building  might  at  times  be  put,  from  the  fact  that  public  dinners  had  been 
given  in  it  by  the  city  to  the  members  of  this  Congress.  But  it  had  also 
been  used  by  the  Provincial  Government  to  give  banquets  in  on  special 
occasions,  prior  to  this  instance.  In  1746  Governor  Thomas  gave  a  dinner 
in  it  to  200  persons  on  the  occasion  of  the  news  of  the  Pretender's  defeat. 
In  1752  Governor  Hamilton  gave  a  ball  in  the  State  House  and  a  supper 
in  the  long  gallery.  Governor  Morris,  in  1754,  had  at  the  State  House  a 
ball  in  the  evening  and  a  supper  in  the  long  gallery.  So  that  there  were 
many  precedents  for  this  courtesy  to  the  members  of  Congress. 

86  John  Dickinson,  statesman,  was  born  in  Maryland  November  13,  1732, 
and  died  in  Wilmington,  Del.,  February  14,  1808.  He  was  the  son  of 
Samuel  Dickinson,  who  removed  from  Maryland  to  Delaware  and  became 
a  chief  justice  of  Kent  County  in  that  State,  dying  there  in  1760,  aged  71. 
John,  after  receiving  a  classical  education  at  the  Friends  Academy, 
studied  law  with  John  Moland,  esq.,  in  Philadelphia,  and  then  for  three 
years  at  the  Temple,  in  London ;  returning  to  Philadelphia,  he  was  admit- 
ted to  the  bar  and  practiced  with  success.  In  1764  he  was  sent  to  the 


138  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

18.  Dined  at  Mr.  Hills87  about  6  Miles  from  Town. 

19.  Eid  out  in  the  Morning  dined  at  Mr.  Boss's88 

Pennsylvania  assembly,  and  in  1765  to  the  Colonial  Congress  which  met 
in  New  York.  This  year  he  began  to  write  against  the  Colonial  policy  of 
the  British  Government.  His  celebrated  "Farmer's  Letters"  appeared  in 
1767.  He  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  first  Continental  Congress,  which 
met  in  Philadelphia  in  1774,  while  that  body  was  in  session.  It  was  gen- 
erally understood  that  he  was  the  author  of  several  of  the  State  papers 
issued  by  that  body,  among  which  was  the  "Address  to  the  inhabitants  of 
Quebeck,"  the  first  petition  to  the  King,  etc.,  the  "Address  to  the  Armies," 
etc.  In  June,  1776,  he  opposed  the  adoption  of  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 
pendence, because  he  doubted  the  wisdom  of  the  measure  until  terms  of 
confederation  and  foreign  assistance  were  assured.  When  the  proposition 
came  up  for  a  vote  he  absented  himself;  but  he  proved  his  patriotism  by 
enlisting  as  a  private  in  the  Army  and  serving  until  the  end  of  his  enlist- 
ment. He  again  served  in  the  Army  in  1777,  and  in  October  of  that  year 
was  commissioned  brigadier-general.  In  1779,  he  was  elected  to  Congress 
from  Delaware,  and  in  May  wrote  an  "Address  to  the  States."  In  1780, 
he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Delaware  assembly,  and  the  following  year 
was  chosen  president  of  the  State.  From  1782  to  1785  he  filled  the  same 
office  in  Pennsylvania,  and  in  1787  served  as  a  member  of  the  convention 
from  Delaware  that  framed  the  Federal  Constitution.  In  1788  he  wrote 
nine  letters  under  the  signature  of  "  Fabius,"  in  favor  of  the  Constitution. 
In  1797  he  wrote  a  series  of  fourteen  letters  to  promote  a  friendly  feeling 
toward  France.  In  1783  he  was  largely  influential  in  founding  and  endow- 
ing Dickinson  College,  at  Carlisle,  Pa.  He  was  a  profound  scholar  in 
political  science  and  a  fervid  and  logical  writer.  In  1770  he  married  Mary 
Norris,  of  "Fair  Hill,"  at  which  place  he  resided  when  Washington  visited 
him.  He  was  a  liberal  entertainer,  and  his  society  was  courted  by  the 
leading  patriots  of  his  day. 

87  Mr.  Hill  resided  6  miles  from  the  city  of  Philadelphia.     His  wife  was 
the  daughter  of  Mr.  Samuel  Meredith. 

88  John  Ross,  lawyer  and  merchant,  of  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  was  born  in  Coun- 
ty Ross,  Scotland,  January  29, 1725,  and  died  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in  March, 
1800.     In  his  youth  he  was  placed  in  a  commercial  house  in  Perth,  Scotland, 
where  he  acquired  a  good  knowledge  of  business.     He  came  to  Philadel- 
phia in  1763,  well  versed  in  the  best  methods  for  the  transaction  of  an  ex- 
tensive commercial  business,  and  became  a  shipping  merchant  and  an  im- 
porting agent.    At  the  very  beginning  of  the  difficulties  with  the  mother 
country  he  aligned  himself  with  the  friends  of  the  Colonies,  and  was  a 
signer  of  the  non-importation  agreement  of  1765.     He  presided  at  a  public 
meeting  of  the  mechanics  and  traders,  June  9,  1774,  to  consider  a  letter 
from  the  artificers  of  New  York,  and  was  on  the  committee  to  reply  to  the 
same.     He  was  shortly  after  appointed  master  of  musters  in  the  Pennsyl- 
vania navy,  September  16,  1775,  which  office  he  resigned,  1776,  on  account 

.  of  his  own  private  business.  In  May,  1776,  he  was  employed  by  the  Com- 
mittee of  Commerce  in  Congress  to  purchase  clothes,  arms  and  powder 
for  the  use  of  the  Army.  To  engage  proper  agents  in  France  and  elsewhere 
he  went  to  Europe  in  1776,  and  at  other  times.  In  his  zeal  during  the  pro- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      139 

20.  Dinexi  with  Mr.  Fisher  the  Mayor.89 

21.  Dined  with  Mr.  James  Mease90 

22.  Dined  with  Mr.  Chew  the  Chief  Justice.—91 

gress  of  the  war,  lie  pledged  his  credit  for  £20,000  more  than  was  supplied 
to  him  by  Congress,  much  to  his  embarrassment  and  subsequent  loss.  He 
was  intelligent  aud  cordial  in  his  disposition,  and  on  terms  of  intimacy 
with  Franklin,  Robert  Morris  and  the  leading  political  characters  of  the 
times.  Washington's  diary  shows  that  he  visited  and  dined  at  his  country 
place,  "The  Grange, "  on  several  occasions. 

89  W.  Fisher  was  mayor  of  Philadelphia,  1772-'74 

90  John  Mease,  instead  of  James,  it  is  surmised,  was  the  gentleman  with 
whom  Gen.  Washington  dined.     If  this  be  the  case,  he  was  born  in  Straban, 
Ireland,  in  1746.     He  was  a  zealous  patriot  and  died  in  Philadelphia  in 
1826.     He  was  brought  to  America  in  1754,  grew  with  Philadelphia,  and 
became  one  of  her  most  prominent  shipping  merchants.     He  was  one  of 
the  organizers  and  original  members  of  the  first  troop  of  city  cavalry, 
one  of  the  corps  that  crossed  the  Delaware  under  Gen.  Washington,  on 
December  25, 1779,  and  was  one  of  five  who  were  detailed  to  keep  alive,  the 
camp  fires  on  the  line  fronting  the  Army  to  cover  any  suspicion  of  a  move- 
ment, while  the  Americans  marched  to  attack  the  rear  guard  of  the  British, 
at  Princeton.    Mease  served  during  the  entire  war,  suffering  thereby  great 
loss  of  property.     In  1780,  when  the  Government  was*  in  great  strait  to 
support  the  Army,  he  subscribed  £4,000.     He  was  one  of  the  admiralty 
surveyors  of  the  Port  of  Philadelphia.  • 

91  Benjamin    Chew,  jurist,   was    born  at    West  River,   Anne  Arundel 
County,  Md.,  November  29,  1722,  and  died  in  Philadelphia,  January  20, 
1810.     He  was  the  son  of  the  Quaker  judge,  Samuel  Chew,  chief  justice 
of  New  Castle,  Del.     Benjamin  studied  law  with  Andrew  Hamilton,  of 
Philadelphia,  and  later  at  the  Temple,  in  London.    Returning  to  Delaware, 
he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1743,  and  in  1745  removed  to  the  city  of 
Philadelphia.    In  1755  he  was  made  receiver  and  served  until  1772.    He  also 
held  the  office  of  register  of  wills  and  attorney-general,  which  he  resigned  in 
1766.     In  1774  he  became  chief  j  ustice  of  Pennsylvania.     He  was  for  several 
years  speaker  of  the  house  of  delegates  for  the  three  lower  counties  in  Dela- 
ware.    At  the  opening  of  the  Revolution,  both  parties  claimed  him,  but 
after  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  he  openly  opposed  the  Patriots, 
and  declining  to  give  a  parole  in  1777,  was  sent  to  prison  at  Fredericks- 
burg,  Va.     He,  however,  never  appears  to  have  given  aid  to  the  enemy. 
In  1790  he  was  appointed  chief  justice  of  the  high  court  of  errors  and  ap- 
peals of  Pennsylvania,  which  he  held  until  1806,  when  the  court  was  abol- 
ished.    His  stone  house  at  Germantown  became  historic  by  its  position  on 
the  field  of  the  battle  of  Germantown  in  1777.     He  was  twice  married; 
first  to  Mary,  daughter  of  Samuel  Galloway,  of  Maryland;  second,  to  a 
daughter  of  Mr.  Oswold.    He  entertained  sumptuously  in  1774  at  his  house 
in  Third  street,  Philadelphia.     The  friendly  intercourse  between  him  and 
Washington  was  continued  after  the  Revolution.     Of  this  dinner  at  Mr. 
Chew's,  John  Adams  in  his  diary  has  the  following  record :    "  Dined  with 
Mr.  Chew,  chief  justice  of  the  provinces,  with  all  the  gentlemen  from  Vir- 
ginia, Dr.  Shippen,  Mr.  Tilghman,  and  many  others.  We  were  shown  into 


140  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

23.  Dined  with  Mr.  Joseph  Pemberton.92 

24.  Dined  with  Mr.  Tho8.  Willing93  and  spent ye  Even*  at  y« 
City  Tavern 

Septr.  25.  Went  to  the  Quaker  Meeting94  in  the  Forenoon 
&  S*.  Peters95  in  the  Afternoon— Din'd  at  my  lodgings 

a  grand  entry  and  staircase,  and  into  an  elegant  and  most  magnificent 
chamber,  until  dinner.  About  four  o'clock  we  were  called  down  to  din- 
ner. The  furniture  was  all  rich.  Turtle  and  every  other  thing,  flum- 
mery, jellies,  sweetmeats,  of  twenty  sorts,  trifles,  whipped  syllabubs, 
floating  islands,  fools,  &c.,  and  then  a  dessert  of  fruits,  almonds,  pears, 
peaches.  Wines  most  excellent  and  admirable.  I  drank  Madeira  at  a 
great  rate,  and  found  no  inconvenience." 

92  Joseph  Pemberton,  a  prominent  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends. 

^Thomas  Willing,  lawyer  and  merchant,  was  born  in  Philadelphia 
December  19, 1731,  and  died  there  January  19, 1821.  He  was  well  educated 
in  England  and  studied  law  at  the  Temple,  London.  In  1764  he  became 
the  head  of  the  firm  of  Willing  &  Norris,  the  largest  and  most  enterprising 
then  in  our  country.  This  partnership  continued  until  1793.  During  the 
Revolution  the  firm  was  the  agents  of  Congress  for  supplying  naval  and 
military  stores.  In  1755  Mr.  Willing  served  as  a  member  of  the  common 
council  of  Philadelphia,  and  in  1759  was  an  alderman,  but  did  not  accept 
until  October,  1760.  He  was  made,  in  1761,  an  associate  justice  of  Common 
Pleas,  Quarter  Session,  and  Orphans'  Court.  In  1763  he  was  elected  by  the 
common  council  mayor  of  the  city.  From  1767  to  1774  he  was  associate 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court.  He  was  a  leader  in  opposition  to  the  "  Stamp 
Act "  and  one  of  the  committee  to  enforce  the  non-importation  agreement 
of  1765.  June,  1774,  he  presided  at  a  mass  meeting  to  take  action  on  the 
question  of  a  general  congress  of  all  the  colonies  and  was  on  the  commit- 
tee of  correspondence.  July  15,  1774,  he  presided  at  a  patriotic  meet- 
ing at  Carpenter's  Hall.  He  was  placed  on  the  committee  of  safety,  and 
in  1775  was  elected  to  the  assembly  on  the  "  Moderate  Men's"  ticket,  and 
the  following  year  was  elected  a  member  of  Congress  to  succeed  Joseph 
Galloway.  In  Congress  he  voted  against  Richard  Henry  Lee's  prelimi- 
nary resolutions  and  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  because  he  deemed 
this  action  on  the  part  of  Congress  unnecessary  and  premature.  When 
the  British  took  possession  of  Philadelphia,  he  remained  during  their  oc- 
cupation and  held  conference  with  Lord  Howe.  Later  and  at  a  critical 
period,  in  1780,  he,  with  other  wealthy  citizens  of  Philadelphia,  subscribed 
£260,000  towards  the  foundation  of  the  Pennsylvania  Bank  and  to  pro- 
cure the  necessary  supplies  for  the  Army.  His  own  subscription  to  the 
fund  was  £5,000.  In  1781,  on  the  formation  of  the  Bank  of  North  America, 
he  was  chosen  its  president  and  continued  to  serve  until  1792.  He  was 
also  the  first  president  of  the  Bank  of  the  United  States,  established  in 
1791.  He  was  in  all  his  business  relations  a  man  of  clear  perceptions, 
great  energy  and  high  integrity. 

94  Quaker  meeting  or  Friends'  house  of  worship  stood  at  the  southwest 
corner  of  Second  and  High  streets.  It  was  built  in  1695,  on  ground 
given  to  the  Society  for  the  purpose,  by  George  Fox,  the  founder  of  the 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      141 

26.  Dined  at  the  old  Doctr.  Shippens96  &  went  to  the  Hos- 
pital 9T 

27.  Dined  at  the  Tavern  with  the  Virga.  Gentu.98  &ca. 

28.  Dined  at  Mr.  Edward  Shippens — "  spent  the  afternn. 
with  the  Boston  Geutn.100 

"  Society  of  Friends."  In  the  progress  of  time,  the  first  structure  prov- 
ing too  small  to  accommodate  the  members,  it  was  taken  down,  and  in 
1755  a  larger  one  erected  on  the  site.  The  new  "meeting  house"  was 
often  spoken  of  as  "the  great  meeting  house."  It  is  most  probable  that 
this  was  the  one  visited  by  Washington. 

96  St.  Peter's  Episcopal  church  is  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Third  and 
Pine  streets.  It  was  originally  a  branch  or  offshoot  from  Christ  church, 
Philadelphia,  and  for  some  years  was  under  the  charge  of  the  Rev.  Jacob 
Duche",  the  brilliant  parson  who,  in  a  persuasive  letter  to  Gen.  Washing- 
ton, endeavored  to  convince  him  that  it  was  a  Christian  and  patriotic  duty 
for  him  to  abandon  the  American  armed  contest  with  Great  Britain. 

96  William  Shippen,  sr.,  physician,  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  October  1, 
1712,  and  died  at  German  town,  November  4, 1801.  He  was  the  son  of  Joseph 
and  grandson  of  Edward  Shippen,  who  was  mayor  of  Philadelphia  in  1701. 
William,  early  in  life,  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  medicine,  for  the 
practice  of  which  he  developed  a  great  aptitude,  to  the  benefit  of  the  com- 
munity in  which  he  lived  and  by  which  he  acquired  fame  and  fortune. 
While  devoted  to  his  profession,  he  was  public  spirited  and  closely  iden- 
tified himself  with  the  founding  of  several  of  the  worthy  institutions 
which  have  made  Philadelphia  so  notable  among  the  cities  of  our  coun- 
try. His  assistance  and  influence  in  the  organization  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Hospital  was  great,  and  he  labored  as  an  attending  physician  in  it  until 
1787.  He  was  on  the  first  board  of  trustees  of  the  College  of  Philadel- 
phia, now  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
American  Philosophical  Society  and  one  of  its  esteemed  vice-presidents. 
He  was  for  nearly  60  years  a  member  of  the  Second  Presbyterian  Church  of 
Philadelphia,  and  for  half  this  time  a  trustee  of  Princeton  College.  In 
1778  he  was  chosen  by  the  Pennsylvania  assembly  a  member  of  the  Conti- 
nental Congress,  aud  was  reflected  in  1779.  Through  the  inheritance  of 
a  good  constitution,  his  regular  and  correct  habits,  he  maintained,  to  an 
advanced  age,  a  remarkable  degree  of  physical  vigor. 

^Pennsylvania  Hospital  was  founded  on  the  square  between  Eighth  and 
Ninth  and  Spruce  and  Pine  streets.  The  cornerstone  of  the  main  building 
was  laid  in  1755.  It  was  practically  the  pioneer  hospital  of  any  great 
pretentions  in  the  colonies,  and  had  the  effect  of  centering  in  Philadel- 
phia the  leading  medical  schools  of  the  country  for  more  than  a  century. 

98  The  Virginia  delegates  to  the  first  Continental  Congress,  which  met  in 
Philadelphia  September  5,  1774,  were,  doubtless,  the  gentlemen  referred 
to.    They  were  the  Hon.  Peyton   Randolph,  Richard  Henry  Lee,  esq., 
Col.  George  Washington,  Richard  Bland,  esq.,  Benjamin  Harrison,  esq., 
and  Edmund  Pendleton,  esq. 

99  Edward  Shippen,  esq.,  was  the  second  son  of  Edward,  an  eminent 
jurist  of  Philadelphia.     He  was  born  in  that  city  February  16,  1729,  and 


142  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

29.  Dined   at   Mr.    Allan's    and   went  to  the  Ball    in  the 
afternn.lnl 

30.  Dined  at  Doctr.  Cadwalladers. 102 

An  Ace*,  of  the  Weather  in  Septr. 

Sepr.  1  Exceeding  Hot,  with  but  little  wind  from  the  South- 
ward— In  the  Night  Eain  (where  I  was) 

died  there  April  16, 1806.  He  read  law  with  Tench  Francis,  and  going  to 
England  continued  the  study  at  the  Middle  Temple  in  London.  Return- 
ing to  America,  he  entered  upon  this  practice  in  his  native  city.  On  the 
22d  of  November,  1752,  he  was  appointed  judge  of  the  Vice  Admiralty 
Court,  and  in  1762  was  made  prothonotary  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Penn- 
sylvania, which  office  he  held  down  to  the  Revolution.  He  became  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Provincial  Council  jn  1770  and  served  continuously  for  five 
years.  His  sympathies  in  the  Colonial  struggle  for  independence  was, 
doubtless,  with  the  mother  country.  He  was,  however,  a  man  of  such  high 
character  that  his  parole  was  taken  by  the  Government  to  give  neither 
succor  nor  information  to  the  enemy.  He  remained  in  Philadelphia  during 
its  occupancy  by  the  British  army,  but  his  prudence  was  such  as  to  avoid 
giving  offense.  His  popularity  may  be  inferred  by  the  fact  that  in  1784  he 
was  appointed  presiding  judge  of  the  court  of  Common  Pleas,  and  in  Sep- 
tember of  the  same  year  one  of  the  judges  of  the  High  Court  of  Errors  and 
Appeals,  which  office  he  retained  until  1799.  Besides  these  official  positions 
he  held  others  of  a  judicial  character,  discharging  all  trusts  with  ability, 
including  that  of  Chief  Justice  of  Pennsylvania.  A  fine  portrait  of 
Judge  Shippen  hangs  in  the  "Corcoran  Art  Gallery"  in  Washington, 
D.  C.  His  daughter  Margaret  married  Benedict  Arnold  and  died  in  Lon- 
don in  1804. 

100  " Boston  Gentlemen"  refers,  doubtless,  to  the  members  from  Massa- 
chusetts of  the  Continental  Congress.     Those  in  attendance  from  that 
State  in  1774  were  all  from  the  city  of  Boston  or  its  vicinity,  namely,  John 
Adams,  Samuel  Adams,  Thomas  Gushing,  and  Robert  Treat  Paine.    John 
Adams,  in  his  diary,  under  this  date,  made  the  following  entry:  "Spent 
the  evening  at  home  with  Col.  Lee  and  Col.  Washington,  and  Dr.  Shippen, 
who  came  in  to  consult  with  us."    John  Hancock's  first  appearance  was 
in  the  Second  Congress,  which  met  May,  1775. 

101  Balls  and  assemblies  for  dancing  have  been  popular  social  institu- 
tions from  remote  times,  and  in  our  Colonial  days  were  especially  so  in  the 
larger  towns  and  particularly  at  the  seats  of  Government.     It  is  presumed 
that  the  dance  and  the  high  social  characters  who  patronize  well-regu- 
lated balls  will,  everywhere  and  in  all  ages,  give  them  a  charm  for  cultivated 
society.     It  will  be  seen  by  this  reference  that  the  ball  was  opened  in  the 
afternoon,  which  was  a  usual  practice  before  the  Revolution. 

108  Dr.  Thomas  Cadwallader  was  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1707  and  died 
in  that  city  in  1779.  He  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  John  Jones,  then  re- 
siding in  Philadelphia.  For  the  further  pursuance  of  medical  knowledge 
he  went  to  London  and  Edinburgh  for  their  college  and  hospital  advan- 
tages. Returning  to  America,  he  began  to  practice  in  his  native  city.  On 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      143 

2.  Again  very  warm  with  but  little  wind — &  that  Southerly 
In  the  Night  Eain — 

3.  Cloudy  &  Cool,  wind  fresh  from  the  Northward. 
4— Again  Cloudy  &  Cool  Wind  about  N°.  East  &  fresh. 

5.  Cloudy  all  day  &  now  and  then  Misting — Wind  at  N°. 
E'.— 

6.  Clear  &  pleasant  with  but  little  Wind 

7.  Clear  and  Warm  with  but  little  wind  &  that  Southerly 

8.  Again  Warm  &  clear,  wind  in  the  same  place. — 

9.  Warm  &  close,  weather  lowering,  &  in  the  afternoon  Bain, 
tho  little  of  it 

10  Clear  &  cool,  Wind  Westwardly  &  tolerably  fresh. — 

11  Pleasant,  but  growing  warmer,  there  being  but  little 
wind — 

12.  Warmer  than  yesterday  and  clear. — 
Sepr.  13th.  lowering  most  part  of  the  day — with  a  little  Eain 
in  the  Evening. — 

14.  Wind  a  little  fresh  from  the  Northward  &  day  clear  & 
somewhat  Cooler — 

15.  A  little  lowering  &  dull  in  the  forenoon — but  cool 

16.  Eather  warm  being  clear  with  little  wind 

17.  Warm  &  clear  with  but  little  wind  &  that  Southerly 

18.  Warm  in  the  forenoon  with  a  brisk  Southwest  wind — in 
the  afternoon  Eain. — 

19.  Pleasant,  and  clear  with  but  little  Wind 

20.  Very  pleasant  and  clear  as  also  a  little  Cool. — 

21.  Much  such  a  day  as  yesterday. — 

22.  Ditto— Ditto. 

Sepr.  23  Clear  but  Pleas*,  and  Cool.— Wind  Northerly 

the  opening  of  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  attend- 
ing physicians,  and  was  retaine  J  upon  its  staff  until  his  death.  He  studied 
anatomy  under  the  eminent  Prof.  Cheseldon,  attained  a  high  degree  of 
proficiency  in  dissection,  and  made  some  demonstrations  on  the  subject  for 
the  elder  Dr.  Shippen,  and  for  the  benefit  of  other  physicians  who  had  not 
had  the  advantages  that  the  schools  of  Europe  afforded.  He  was  an  influ- 
ential member  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society  and  of  the  College 
of  Philadelphia.  As  early  as  1745  he  published  an  "  Essay  on  the  Iliac 
Passion,"  and  contributed  to  the  press  other  articles  of  value  on  medical 
subjects.  He  was  gentle  in  his  manners,  attentive  to  his  patients,  enjoyed 
to  an  exceptional  degree  the  confidence  and  respect  of  the  community,  and 
was  noted  for  benevolence  and  his  cheerful  disposition.  In  1765  he  was 
appointed  to  the  Provincial  Council,  and  held  numerous  positions  of  honor 
and  trust. 


144  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

24.  Clear  and  pleasant  but  somewhat  cool  wind  in  tne  same 
Quarter 

25.  Very  pleasant  and  somewhat,  there  being  no  Wind 

26.  Clear  and  pleasant  but  rather  warm  there  being  no  Wind 

27.  Again  clear  and  warm  with  but  little  or  no  wind 

28.  Very  warm — foggy  in  the  Morning  but  clear  after*8 

29.  Very  warm  again,  being  clear  with  no  wind. 

30.  Still  warm  with  some  appearances  of  Rain 

Where,  how,  or  with  whom  my  time  is  Spent. 

Octr.  1st.  At  y6  Congress  till  3  ocl :    Din'd  with  Mr.  Ham- 
ilton103 at  Bush  Hill. 
2.  Went  to  Christ  Church104  &  dined  at  ye  New  Tavern. 

103  James  Hamilton,  esqr.,  of  "Bush  Hill,"  Philadelphia,  was  the  son  of 
Andrew  Hamilton,  the  eminent  lawyer  who  won  fame  with  the  friends  of 
liberty  and  of  free  speech  in  America,  by  the  defense  of  John  Peter  Zenger, 
the  printer,  in  New  York  in  1735.  James  was  born  about  1710,  it  is  sup- 
posed, in  Accomac  County,  Va.,  and  died  in  the  city  of  New  York,  August 
14,  1783.  He  was  a  man  of  good  habits,  well  educated,  and  attentive  to 
business.  He  was  elected  to  the  provincial  assembly  in  1754,  and  re- 
elected  for  five  successive  terms.  On  the  retirement  of  his  father  as  pro- 
thonotary  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Pennsylvania,  he  was  appointed  to 
that  office.  In  1765  he  was  elected  mayor  of  Philadelphia,  and  on  retiring 
from  that  position,  set  the  example,  which  was  followed,  that  instead  of 
giving  a  banquet,  as  had  been  the  custom  of  his  predecessors,  he  con- 
tributed £150  to  a  fund  for  erecting  needed  public  buildings.  This  prece- 
dent was  followed  by  his  successors  for  many  years.  At  the  death  of  his 
father,  he  came  into  the  possession  of  a  very  handsome  estate  which  included 
"Bush  Hill,"  where  he  resided.  In  1746  he  became  a  member  of  the  Pro- 
vincial Council,  and  in  1748,  while  in  London,  was  commissioned  the 
first  native  lieutenant-governor  of  Pennsylvania,  by  the  sons  of  William 
Penn.  He  resigned  this  office  in  1754,  to  the  regret  of  the  leading  citizens, 
but  was  induced  in  1759  to  resume  the  office,  which  he  filled  acceptably 
until  1763,  when  he  retired.  Again  on  the  retirement  of  John  Penn,  he 
administered  the  government  as  provost  of  the  council,  until  the  arrival 
of  Richard  Penn  in  1771.  In  1773,  he  was  for  a  brief  period  at  the  head  of 
the  Government.  He  had  been  so  much  in  the  service  of  the  Crown,  that 
it  is  not  strange  he  should  have  found  it  difficult  to  adopt  the  extreme 
views  of  the  Colonies  and  be  prepared  to  take  up  arms  against  the  mother 
country.  Although  prudent  in  his  conduct,  in  1777  he  was  arrested,  but 
paroled.  He  resided  at  Northampton  during  the  occupation  of  Philadel- 
phia by  the  British  army.  He  has  left  a  good  record  in  his  efforts  to  found 
some  of  the  benevolent  institutions  of  Philadelphia.  He  was  an  active 
and  useful  member  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  and  of  the 
Society  for  the  Diffusion  of  Useful  Knowledge. 

104  Christ  Church  was  the  earliest  Episcopal  organization  formed  in  Phil- 
adelphia. The  society  erected,  in  1695,  a  small  wooden  building  on  Second 


GEOEGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      145 

3.  At  Congress  till  3  oclock.    Dined  at  Mr.  Eeeds. 105 

4.  At  Congress  till  3  Oclock  dined  at  young  Doctr.  Shippens 

5.  At  Congress  as  above,  Dined  at  Doctr.  Bonds  106 

street,  between  Market  and  Arch  streets.  The  structure  was  enlarged  at 
different  times,  and  was  finally,  about  1755,  entirely  rebuilt.  The  service 
Washington  attended  was  in  the  handsome  new  structure.  John  Adams, 
in  his  diary  under  this  date,  says :  "  Went  to  Christ  Church  and  heard  Mr. 
Combe  upon  '  Judge  not  according  to  the  appearance,  but  judge  righteous 
judgment.'  " 

105  Joseph  Reed,  esq.,  was  born  at  Trenton,  N.  J.,  August  27,  1741,  and 
died  in  Philadelphia,  March  5,  1785.     He  was  a  graduate  of  Princeton 
College  in  1757,  after  which  he  studied  law  with  Robert  Stockton,  and 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1763.     He  then  went  to  Europe  and  spent  two 
years  at  the  Middle  Temple  in  London.     Returning,  he  began  the  practice 
of  his  profession  at  Trenton,  and  in  1767  was  appointed  deputy  secretary 
of  New  Jersey.     In  1770  he  returned  to  England  and  there  married 
Esther,  daughter  of  Dennis  De  Berdt,  the  agent  of  Massachusetts  in  Great 
Britain.     On  his  return  to  America,  he  settled  in  Philadelphia,  and  there 
pursued  the  practice  of  law  with  success.     In  all  the  early  movements  in 
the  Colonies,  which  led  up  to  the  armed  collision  between  them  and  Great 
Britain,  he  was  an  active  and  intelligent  friend  of  America.     In  1774  he 
was  appointed  a  member  of  the  committee  of  correspondence,  and  in 
January,  1775,  was  chosen  president  of  the  Second  Provincial  Congress. 
On  the  formation  of  the  Pennsylvania  associated  militia,  after  the  news 
of  the  battle  of  Lexington,  he  was  chosen  lieutenant-colonel  of  a  regiment. 
When  Washington  was  appointed  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  American 
forces,  he  accepted  the  position  of  military  secretary  to  him,  and,  leaving 
his  practice,  he  accompanied  the  general  to  Boston.     In  October,  1775, 
with  the  approval  of  Washington,  he  returned  to  Philadelphia,  and  in 
January,  1776,  was  chosen  a  member  of  the  Assembly,  and  was  acting 
chairman  of  the   committee  of  safety.     On  June  5,  he  was  appointed 
Adjutant- General  of  the  American  Army  with,  the  rank  of  colonel,  and 
was  active  in  the  campaign  that  terminated  with  the  battle  of  Long 
Island.     In  1777,  on  the  recommendation  of   Washington,  he  was  ap- 
pointed a  brigadier-general  and  tendered  the  command  of  all  the  Conti- 
nental cavalry,   which  he  declined.    March  20,  1777,  he  was  appointed 
chief  justice  of  Pennsylvania,  which  he  also  declined  and  remained  at- 
tached to  General  Washington's  headquarters  as  a  volunteer  aid,  without 
rank    or    pay,   serving  with   credit    at   Brandywine,   Germantown    and 
Monmouth.     In  this  year  he  was  elected  to  the  Continental  Congress. 
In  1778  he  was  chosen  president  of  the    supreme  executive  council  of 
Pennsylvania,  which  office  he  held  for  three  yqars.     He  exposed  an  attempt 
of  the  British  to  bribe  him  with  a  large  sum  of  money. 

106  Dr.  Thomas  Bond  was  born  near  Annapolis,  Md.,  in  1712,  and  died  in 
Philadelphia,  1784.    After  acquiring  a  classical  education,  chiefly  from  pri- 
vate tutors,  he  began  the  study  of  medicine  with  Dr.  Hamilton,  of  Annap- 
olis j  after  a  thorough  office  training,  he  went  to  Europe  and  took  a  special 
course  in  the  hospitals  of  Paris  and  London.     Returning  to  America,  he 
began  the  practice  of  his  profession  in  Philadelphia  in  1734.     His  correct 

S.  Mis.  57 10 


146  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

6.  At  Congress — din'd  at  Mr.  Sam1  Meridith's.107 

7.  At  Congress— Dined  at  Mr.  Tho*.  Smiths.—108 

8.  At  Congress — Dined  with  Mr.  John  Cadwallader 109 

deportment  and  his  devotion  to  professional  duty  soon  attracted  atten- 
tion and  won  him  an  admiring  clientage.  He  was  not  only  humane  but 
full  of  enterprise,  and  materially  assisted  in  founding  the  college  of  Phil- 
adelphia. He  gave  the  first  course  of  clinical  lectures  to  medical  students 
in  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital.  As  early  as  1743,  he  was  a  member  of  a 
literary  society  composed  of  such  men  as  Dr.  B.  Franklin,  Bertram,  God- 
frey Coleman,  and  others  of  scientific  and  literary  tastes.  He  was  for 
many  years  an  officer  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society,  and  deliv- 
ered the  annual  address  in  1782.  He  was  the  author  of  a  number  of 
papers  on  medical  and  philosophical  subjects,  printed  in  the  transactions 
of  that  Society.  He  was  widely  known  as  a  learned  physician,  and  very 
skillful  surgeon,  and  was  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Hospital. 

107  Samuel  Meredith  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  1740,  and  died  on  his 
estate,  in  Luzerne  County,  Pa.,  March  10,  1817.     The  Meredith  family 
were  trom  Wales.     Their  admiration  for  Washington  began  with  the 
father  of  Samuel,  Rees  Meredith,  a  successful  merchant  of  Philadelphia, 
who  met  Washington  by  accident  in  a  public  house,  when  he  was  quite  a 
young  man,  and  was  so  pleased  with  his  dignified  demeanor,  patriotic 
sentiments,  and  wide  intelligence,  that  he  invited  him  to  dine  with  him 
on  fresh  venison.    The  acquaintance  thus  begun  proved  lasting,  and  ex- 
tended from  father  to  sons.     Samuel  had  served  as  a  member  of  the  legis- 
lature before  the  Revolution.     In  1775  he  entered  the  military  service  as 
major  of  the  3rd  Pennsylvania  Battalion,  was  in  numerous  engagements, 
and  soon  promoted  for  gallant  services  to  be  a  brigadier-general.    In  an 
emergency  during  the  war  he  and  his  brother-in-law,  George  Clymer,  the 
signer,  each  gave  £10,000  in  silver  to  carry  on  the  war.     Gen.  Meredith 
was  exiled  from  Philadelphia  during  its  occupancy  by  the  British.     He 
was  a  member  of  the  old  Congress  1787-'88,  and  was  the  first  Treasurer  of 
the  United  States,  from  1787  to  1801,  when  he  resigned.    To  aid  the  new 
Government,  he  advanced  for  it  $20,000,  and  subsequently  $120,000,  which, 
it  is  stated,  has  never  been  repaid.    Washington's  diaries  show  that  he 
dined  with  Mr.  Meredith  in  Philadelphia  in  1773,  and  again  in  1774,  and 
on  other  occasions. 

108  Thomas  Smith.    No  data. 

109  John  Cadwallader  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  January  10,  1742,  and 
died  in  Shrewsbury,  Pa.,  February  11,  1786.    He  was  the  son  of  the  emi- 
nent physician,  Thomas  Cadwallader,  of  Philadelphia.    John  was  an  early 
and  zealous  advocate  of  the  rights  of  the  Colonies  in  the  controversy  with 
the  mother  country.    He  was  one  of  the  original  members  of  the  Com- 
mittee of  Safety,  and  captain  of  a  military  company  prior  to  the  Revolu- 
tion, which,  in  a  bantering  way,  was  called  the  "  Silk  Stocking  Company," 
but  the  high  character  of  the  men  composing  it  may  be  inferred  from  the 
fact  that  most  of  the  members,  in  the  progress  of  the  military  organiza- 
tion of  the  troops  of  the  State,  served  as  commissioned  officers.     On  the 
organization  of  the  city  forces,  he  was  placed  in  command  of  that  bat- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.        147 

9.  Went  to  the  Presbeterian  Meeting110  in  the  forenoon  and 
Romish  Church111  in  the  afternoon  dind  at  Bevans's112 

10.  At  Congress. — din'd  at  Docr.  Morgan's — ll3 

talion,  and  shortly  afterward  made  brigadier-general  and  placed  in  com- 
mand of  the  Pennsylvania  militia.  Gen.  Cadwallader  cooperated  very 
efficiently  with  Washington  in  the  capture  of  the  Hessians  at  Trenton, 
December  26,  1776,  and  was  present  as  a  volunteer  at  the  battles  of  Bran- 
dywine,  Germantown  and  Monmouth.  In  the  fall  of  1777,  at  the  request 
of  Gen.  Washington,  he  assisted  in  organizing  the  militia  of  the  Eastern 
Shore  of  Maryland.  In  1778  the  combination  known  as  the  "Conway 
«  Cabal"  becoming  aggressive  against  Washington,  Gen.  Cadwallader  de- 
nounced and  challenged  the  most  outspoken  of  the  plotters,  Thomas  Con- 
way.  They  met,  and  Conway  was  wounded,  but  recovered.  As  Gen. 
Cadwallader's  service  was  in  the  Pennsylvania  militia,  and  not  in  the 
regular  Continental  service,  he  was  therefore  only  a  volunteer  aid  to  Wash- 
ington when  the  Pennsylvania  militia  were  not  in  the  field,  although  he 
declined  the  appointment  of  brigadier-general  from  Congress  in  1777. 
After  the  independence  of  the  States  was  recognized,  he  removed  to  Mary- 
land and  served  at  different  times  in  the  legislature  of  that  State,  from 
Kent  County.  His  daughter,  Fanny,  married  David  Montague,  after- 
ward Lord  Erskine. 

110  The  Presbyterian  meeting  house  or  "New  meeting  house,"  as  it  was 
then  spoken  of,  under  the  charge  of  the  Rev.  Gilbert  Tennent,  was  situ- 
ated on  the  northwest  corner  of  Third  and  Arch  streets.    The  venerable 
Dr.  Allison  preached  a  sacramental  discourse  that  day  on  which  John 
Adams  in  his  diary  makes  some  comments. 

111  Catholic  Church,  mentioned  here  as  the  "Romish  Church,"  was 
most  likely  St.  Mary's  on  Fourth  street,  above  Spruce,  and  was  built  abont 
1763.    It  served  for  a  time  as  the  bishop's  church  or  cathedral,  under  the 
administration  of  the  first  Bishop  of  Philadelphia,  the  Right  Rev.  Michael 
Egan.     John  Adams  in  his  diary  under  this  date  says,  "  Went  in  the  after- 
noon to  the  Romish  Chapel,  and  heard  a  good  discourse  on  the  duty  of 
parents  to  their  children,  founded  on  justice  and  charity.     The  scenery 
and  the  music  are  so  calculated  to  take  in  mankind,  that  I  wonder  the  re- 
formation ever  succeeded.    The  paintings,  the  bells,  the  candles,  the  gold 
and  silver,  and  the  Saviour  on  the  Cross  over  the  altar,  at  full  length,  and 
all  His  wounds  bleeding.    The  chanting  is  exquisitely  soft  and  sweet." 

1U  Bevan's.     Possibly  a  public  house. 

113  John  Morgan,  M.  D.,  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  1735,  and  died  in  the 
same  city,  October  15,  1789.  He  was  the  son  of  Evan  Morgan,  a  native  of 
Wales,  who  settled  in  Philadelphia  and  became  a  prosperous  merchant. 
John  received  a  classical  education  at  the  Rev.  Mr.  Finley's  academy  and 
at  the  College  of  Philadelphia  from  which  he  graduated  in  1757.  As  was 
then  the  custom,  he  was  apprenticed  to  the  study  of  medicine,  with  Dr. 
John  Redman  of  Philadelphia.  On  the  conclusion  of  his  office  studies,  he 
entered  the  military  service  for  a  brief  period,  serving  with  the  Pennsyl- 
vania troops,  then  engaged  in  the  French  and  Indian  war.  In  1760  he  went 
to  Europe  to  study  further  and  to  prosecute,  in  the  large  hospitals  and  col- 
leges, a  more  systematic  course  of  medicine  than  America  afforded.  In  Paris 


148  AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 

Octr.  11.  Din'd  at  my  Lodgings  &  spent  the  Evening  at 
Bevan's 

12.  At  Congress  all  the  forenoon  Dined  at  Mr.  Jos11.  Whar- 
tons  m  &  went  to  ye  Govr8.  Club. — 115 

he  met  and  renewed  a  pleasant  acquaintance  with  Dr.  Benjamin  Franklin, 
who  introduced  him  to  many  eminent  and  scientific  gentlemen  in  England 
and  on  the  Continent.  In  1763,  he  received  the  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the 
University  of  Edinburgh.  The  following  year  was  spent  in  the  study  of 
anatomy  and  physiology.  He  wrote  a  paper  on  "The  art  of  making 
anatomical  preparations  by  corrosions,"  and  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
Royal  Academy.  After  visiting  Italy  and  Holland,  he  returned  to  London 
for  further  study,  and  became  a  licentiate  of  "  The  College  of  Physicians 
and  Surgeons."  In  1765  he  returned  to  Philadelphia  thoroughly  equipped 
for  the  practice  of  his  profession.  Shortly  afterward  he  was  largely  instru- 
mental in  founding  the  medical  department  of  the  College  of  Philadelphia, 
now  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  in  which  he  was  appointed  the  pro- 
fessor of  the  theory  and  practice  of  medicine.  In  1775  he  was  appointed, 
by  Congress,  director-general  of  the  military  hospitals  and  physician  in 
chief  of  the  American  Army,  and  immediately  joined  Gen.  Washington, 
at  Boston.  The  medical  department,  at  this  time,  existed  chiefly  in  name. 
He  exerted  himself  with  intelligence  and  energy  to  make  it  efficient  and 
systematic  in  the  conduct  of  the  duties  assigned  to  it  with  measurable 
success  when  all  the  difficulties  are  considered.  Jealousies  were  excited 
and  rivalries  developed  so  that  Congress,  taking  sides  January  9,  1777, 
without  inquiry  or  report  to  them  of  any  facts  in  the  case,  dismissed  him, 
and  appointed  a  successor.  Later,  upon  repeated  petitions,  his  adminis- 
tration of  the  hospital  department  was  inquired  into,  and  he  was  acquitted 
of  all  blame.  He  continued  his  services  in  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital 
until  1783.  Dr.  Morgan  was  a  member  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  a 
member  of  the  Belles -letters  Society  of  Rome,  the  American  Philosophical 
Society,  and  many  others.  His  medical  papers  and  writings  show  that 
he  was  not  only  a  ripe  scholar,  but  also  thoroughly  imbued  with  the  spirit 
of  scientific  investigation. 

114  Joseph  Wharton  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  March  21,  1733,  and  died 
there  December  25,  1816.     He  was  the  son  of  Joseph  Wharton,  merchant, 
who  was  also  born  in  Philadelphia,  August  4,  1707,  and  died  in  that  city 
July,  1776.    Joseph,  the  second,  went  to  England  in  1775,  and  while  there 
wrote  a  number  of  letters  on  the  attitude  of  Great  Britain  to  the  Colonies, 
which  were  published  aud,  at  the  time,  attracted  much  attention ;  but  after- 
wards for  safety  he  had  to  leave  London  for  France.     While  in  England  he 
was  much  in  thd  company  of  the  artist,  Benjamin  West.     It  was  mainly 
through  his  suggestion  and  influence  that  West's  painting  of  "  Christ 
Healing  the  Sick"  was  given  to  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital.     The  transfer 
of  this  picture  was  only  definitely  accomplished  in  1817. 

115  John  Penn,  lieutenant-governor  of  Pennsylvania  in  1774,  was  the  son 
of  Richard  and  the  grandson  of  William  Penn,  the  founder  of  Pennsyl- 
vania.    He  was  born  in  London,  July  14,  1729,  and  died  on  his  estate  in 
Bucks  County,  Pa.,  February,  1795.     He  was  well  educated  when  he  came 
to  Pennsylvania  in  1753,  and  was  at  once  admitted  as  a  member  of  the 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      149 

13.  Dined  at  my  lodgings — after  being  at  Congress  till  4  oclk. 

14.  Dined  at  Mr.  Tho8.  Barclay's116  and  spent  the  Evening  at 
Smiths 

15.  Dined  at  Bevans's — spent  the  Evening  at  home. — 

16.  Went  to  Christ  Church  in  the  forenoon — after  which  rid 
to,  &  dind  in  ye  Provence  Island — Suppd  at  Byrns's — m 

17.  After  Congress  dind  at  board  Captn.  Hamilton118 — Spent 
the  Evening  at  Mr.  Miflin's 

18.  Dined  at  Doctr.  Bush's 1 19  and  spent  the  Evening  at  y*  New 
Tavern. — 

Provincial  council  with  the  right  to  succeed  to  the  presidency  when  a 
vacancy  occurred.  In  1754  he  was  sent  as  one  of  the  commissioners  of  the 
colony  to  the  Congress  which  met  in  Albany.  In  1763  he  became  lieu- 
tenant-governor on  the  death  of  his  father.  In  1771  he  inherited  one- 
third  of  the  Province,  his  uncle,  Thomas,  owning  the  remainder,  by  whose 
deputation  and  in  his  own  right,  he  became  governor  of  the  Province  in 
1773.  He  was  opposed  on  principle,  to  taxation  without  representation. 
At  the  outset  of  the  Revolution,  the  patriots  organized  an  assembly,  in  the 
nature  of  a  committee  of  safety,  without  consulting  the  governor.  Gov- 
ernor Penu  saw  it  was  no  use  to  antagonize  the  sentiment  and  while  pro- 
testing, remained  inactive.  Most  of  the  great  landed  estate  of  the  Penna 
was  confiscated,  although  the  governor  never  took  up  arms  against  the 
Colonies.  There  was  said  to  have  been  a  very  cordial  friendship  exist- 
ing between  Washington  and  Governor  Penn,  from  the  period  of  the 
French  and  Indian  war,  which  was  never  entirely  broken  off. 

116  Thomas  Barclay.     The  writer  has  not  identified  this  gentleman. 

117  Byrns's.     Probably  a  public  house. 

118Capt.  W.  Hamilton.  The  Pennsylvania  Gazette  of  October  5,  1774, 
records  the  fact  that  W.  Hamilton  of  the  Ship  "Union"  has  taken  a 
clearance. 

119Benjainin  Rush,  M.  D.,  signer  of  tne  Declaration  of  Independence,  was 
born  in  Bybury  Township,  Philadelphia  County,  Pa.,  December  24,  1745, 
and  died  in  Philadelphia,  April  19,  1813.  His  grandfather,  John  Rush,  com- 
manded a  troop  of  horse  in  Cromwell's  army,  and  in  1683  emigrated  to 
Pennsylvania.  When  Benjamin  was  but  6  years  old,  his  father  died.  His 
earliest  instructor  was  his  uncle,  Rev.  Samuel  Finley.  Later  he  was  sent 
to  Princeton  College,  where  he  graduated  in  1760.  He  read  medicine  with 
Dr.  John  Redman,  and  then  went  to  Europe  and  graduated  in.  that  study 
at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  1768.  He  also  studied  at  the  hospitals 
in  London  and  Paris.  Here  he  had  the  wise  counsel  of  Dr.  B.  Franklin. 
In  1769  he  returned  to  Philadelphia,  and  shortly  after  was  elected  professor 
of  chemistry  in  the  College  of  Philadelphia.  In  1771  he  published  papers 
on  slavery,  temperance  and  health,  and  in  1774  delivered  an  oration  before 
the  Philosophical  Society  on  the  natural  history  of  medicine  among  the 
Indians.  He  early  identified  himself  in  the  pre-revolutionary  movements 
in  advocacy  of  colonial  rights.  As  a  member  of  the  Pennsylvania  provin- 
cial congress,  and  chairman  of  a  commiteee,  he  reported  that  it  was  expe- 


150  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 

19.  Dined  at  Mr.  Willings  &  spent  the  Evening  at  my  own 
lodgings 

20.  Dind  at  ye  New  Tavern  with  ye  Pens*.  Assembly  12°  — 
went  to  the  Ball  afterwards 

dient  that  Congress  declare  independence.  He  was  surgeon  of  the 
Pennsylvania  navy  from  September  to  July,  1776,  when  he  was  elected 
member  of  Congress,  which  gave  him  the  opportunity  to  sign  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence.  In  1776  he  married  Julia,  daughter  of  Richard 
Stockton,  and  in  the  same  year  was  appointed  Surgeon-General  of  the  Mid- 
dle Department  of  the  Continental  Army,  becoming  Physician-General  in 
1777.  He  was  a  man  of  much  mental  activity,  well  informed,  and  had 
great  physical  powers  for  prolonged  labor.  After  the  battles  of  Brandy- 
wine,  Germantown,  Trenton  and  Princeton,  he  underwent  for  some  days 
great  fatigue.  In  1778  he  resigned  on  account  of  wrongs  that  had  been 
done  the  soldiers  in  regard  to  hospital  stores ;  and  a  coolness,  about  this 
time,  existed  between  him  and  Gen .  Washington .  He  refused  compensation 
for  his  services  while  in  the  army  and  resumed  private  practice.  For 
twenty-nine  years  he  was  surgeon  to  the  Pennsylvania  Hospital,  and  port 
physician  in  Philadelphia  in  1790-'93.  He  was  influential  in  founding  Dick- 
inson College  and  the  Philadelphia  Dispensary.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
convention  that  ratified  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and  also  of 
the  convention  that  drafted  the  constitution  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania. 
He  performed  a  prodigious  amount  of  labor  during  the  epidemic  of  yellow 
fever  in  Philadelphia  in  1793.  His  practice  was  bold  and  heroic.  From 
1790  to  his  death  he  was  treasurer  of  the  United  States  Mint.  He  was  an 
influential  and  valued  member  of  nearly  all  the  scientific  societies  of  his 
time,  and  wrote  much  and  well  on  every  subject  that  engaged  his  atten- 
tion. In  medical  literature  he  is  spoken  of  as  the  Sydenham  of  America. 

120  This  dinner  given  to  the  delegates  to  the  Continental  Congress  by  the 
assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  was  a  polite  recognition  of  the  character  of  the 
men  composing  that  body,  as  well  as  a  respectful  consideration  for  the 
sister  provinces  from  which  they  came.  The  courtesy  of  the  affair,  consid- 
ering the  fact  that  the  Congress  was  unauthorized  by  the  ministers  of 
Great  Britain  or  the  crown  officers  residing  in  America,  all  of  whom 
would  have  prevented  it  if  they  could,  was  a  high  compliment,  emphasized 
by  the  further  fact  that  it  was  given  under  the  patronage  of  the  newly 
elected  assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  which  was  largely  made  up  of  "Friends," 
who  were  on  principle  opposed  to  the  exercise  of  armed  force.  An  analysis 
of  the  list  of  members  shows  that  six  delegates  to  the  Continental  Congress 
were  also  members  elect  of  the  assembly ;  and  also  that  in  this  assembly 
were  two  who  were  afterwards  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independ- 
ence. If  we  include  the  counties  on  the  Delaware  there  were  then  three 
more  who  were  members  of  the  Continental  Congress,  and  were  later 
signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  Although  there  were  some 
non-combatants,  there  were  also  others  who  were  distinguished  in  arms 
and  statesmanship,  like  John  Dickinson,  who  was  a  tower  of  strength  to 
the  patriot  cause.  Such  were  the  hosts  and  committee  of  reception  in 
this,  the  first  state  dinner  of  the  Revolution.  From  John  Adams'  diary 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.     151 

we  quote  the  following  in  relation  to  the  dinner  of  one  hundred  or  more 
guests.  During  the  evening  he  says : 

"A  sentiment  was  given,  '  May  the  sword  of  the  parent  never  be  stained 
with  the  hlood  of  her  children/  Two  or  three  broad  brims  over  against 
me  at  the  table  5  one  of  them  said,  'that  is  not  a  toast  but  a  prayer ;  come, 
let  us  join  in  it.'  And  they  took  their  glasses  accordingly." 

The  editor  wishes  to  acknowledge  the  obligation  he  is  under  to  Dr.  W. 
H.  Egle,  M.  D.,  of  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  for  the  list  of  members  of  the  newly 
elected  assembly,  and  the  particulars  relating  to  this  entertainment  from 
the  original  minutes  of  the  assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  under  date  of  Octo- 
ber 14,  1774. 

"Upon  motion  by  Mr.  Ross, 

"  Resolved,  unanimously,  that  John  Dickinson,  esq.,  be,  and  is  hereby 
added  to  the  Committee  of  Deputies  appointed  by  the  late  Assembly  of 
this  province  to  attend  the  General  Congress  now  sitting  in  the  City  of 
Philadelphia  on  American  Grievances. 

"Resolved,  That  this  House  shall  provide  an  entertainment,  to  be  given 
on  Thursday  next,  to  the  deputies  from  the  several  Colonies  attending 
public  business  in  this  city. 

"  Ordered,  That  Mr.  Gray,  Mr.  Hillegas,  Mr.  Mifflin,  Mr.  Rodman,  Mr. 
Pearson,  Mr.  Wayne,  and  Mr.  Ross,  with  the  Speaker,  be  a  Committee  to 
provide  and  superintend  the  said  entertainment,  and  that  Mr.  Speaker  do 
invite  the  gentlemen  of  the  Congress  accordingly." 

Upon  motion  on  Friday,  October  21,  the  following  resolutions  were 
passed : 

"  Ordered,  That  Mr.  Gray,  Mr.  Hillegas,  Mr.  Mifflin,  Mr.  Rodman,  Mr. 
Pearson,  Mr.  Wayne,  and  Mr.  Ross,  or  any  four  of  them,  with  the  Speak- 
er, be  a  committee  to  settle  accounts  of  the  entertainment  given  yester- 
day, and  of  the  expenses  attending  the  sitting  of  the  Congress,  and  that 
the  said  committee  do  draw  orders,  for  discharging  the  same,  on  Samuel 
Preston  Moore,  esq.,  to  be  paid  out  of  the  late  interest  money  in  his 
hands." 

Names  of  the  members  of  the  assembly  of  the  province  of  Pennsylvania, 
chosen  at  the  annual  elections  held  October  1,  1774. 


For  the  County  of  Philadelphia : 

George  Gray. 

Henry  Pawling. 

John  Dickinson. 

Joseph  Parker. 

Isreal  Jacobs. 

Jonathan  Roberts. 

Michael  Hillegas. 

tSamuel  Rhoads. 
For  the  City  of  Philadelphia : 
"tThomas  Mifflin. 

Charles  Thomson. 
For  the  County  of  Bucks. 

John  Brown. 

John  Foulke. 


For  the  County  of  Bucks — Cont'd. 

William  Rodman. ' 

Benjamin  Chapman. 

tJoseph  Galloway. 

Robert  Kirkbride. 

Gerardus  Wynkoop. 

John  Raney. 
For  the  County  of  Chester: 

Benjamin  Bartholomew. 

John  Jacobs. 

Joseph  Pennock. 

James  Gibbons. 

Isaac  Pearson. 

tCharles  Humphreys. 

*tJohn  Morton. 


152 


AMERICAN    HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 


Octr.  21.  Dined  at  my  lodging  &  spent  the  Evening  there  also 
22.  Dined  at  Mr.  Griffin's  &  drank  Tea  with  M™.  Roberdeau121 


For  the  County  of  Chester — Cont'd. 

Anthony  Wayne. 
For  the  County  of  Lancaster : 

James  Webb. 

Joseph  Ferree. 

Matthias  Slough. 

*tGeorge  Ross. 
For  the  County  of  York: 

James  Ewing. 

Michael  Swoope. 
For  the  County  of  Cumberland : 

William  Allen. 

John  Montgomery. 

Names  with  a  star  (*)  before  them  were  subsequently  signers  of  the  Dec- 
laration of  Independence  and  those  with  a  dagger  (t)  were  members  of 
the  Continental  Congress  of  1774. 

The  Pennsylvania  Gazette  of  October  26,  1774,  says : 

"  On  Thursday  last  an  elegant  entertainment,  at  the  City  Tavern,  was 
given  by  the  Assembly  of  this  Province  to  the  Gentlemen  of  tho  Con- 


For  the  County  of  Berks : 

tEdward  Biddle. 

Henry  Christ. 
For  the  County  of  Northampton : 

William  Edmunds. 
For  the  County  of  Bedford : 

Bernhard  Daugherty. 
For  the  County  of  Northumberland 

Samuel  Hunter. 
For  the  County  of  Westmoreland. 

William  Thompson. 


131  Daniel  Roberdeau  was  born  in  the  island  of  St.  Christopher,  West 
Indies,  in  1727,  and  died  in  Winchester,  Va.,  January  5, 1795.  He  was  the 
son  of  Isaac  Roberdeau,  a  French  Huguenot,  and  was  brought  by  his 
mother's  family,  who  were  Scotch,  to  Philadelphia.  From  his  youth  he 
was  trained  to  merchandising  and  the  counting  house.  He  was  well  edu- 
cated, active,  intelligent  and  attentive  to  business.  .He  was  as  early  as 
1752  a  Mason  and  was  a  member  of  the  Pennsylvania  assembly  in  1756, 
serving  until  1760.  In  1765  he  was  an  elder  in  the  Presbyterian  church. 
Early  in  the  movement  of  the  Revolution,  he  identified  himself  with  the 
friends  of  the  colonies,  and  joining  the  Pennsylvania  Associators  was 
elected,  in  1775,  colonel  of  the  Second  Battalion,  and  made  president  of  the 
board  of  government  of  the  association.  He  presided  at  a  public  meeting 
at  the  State  house  May  20,  1776,  which  greatly  influenced  sentiment  in 
favor  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  While  in  command  of  his  bat- 
talion, he  and  his  partner  Col.  John  Bayard,  fitted  out  two  ships  as  priva- 
teers, one  of  which  took  a  valuable  prize  with  $22,000  in  silver  which  he 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  Congress.  July  4,  1776,  he  was  chosen  a  member 
of  the  council  of  safety,  the  same  year  was  elected  brigadier-general  of 
the  Pennsylvania  troops,  and  assisted  Washington  in  New  Jersey.  In  Feb- 
ruary, 1777,  he  was  elected  to  the  Continental  Congress  and  served  until 
1779.  In  1778,  in  hope  of  supplying  lead  to  aid  the  army,  he  undertook^  to 
start  the  smelting  of  lead  from  the  ore  at  a  disused  mine  in  Bedford  County, 
Pa.,  where  he  established  a  fort  and  smelting  works.  The  project  did  not 
succeed,  however. 

In  May,  1779,  he  presided  at  a  public  meeting  in  Philadelphia,  to  expose 
and  correct  the  abuses  of  depreciating  the  currency.  After  the  Revolu- 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.     153 

23.  Dined  at  my  lodgings  and  spent  the  Evening  there 

24.  Dined  with  Mr.  Mease  &  spent  the  Evening  at  the  New 
Tavern 

25.  Dined  at  my  lodgings 

26.  Dined  at  Bevans's,  and  Spent  the  Evening  at  the  New 
Tavern. — 

27.  Set  out  on  my  return  home  dined  at  Chester  and  lodged 
at  New  castle 

28.  Breakfasted  at  the  Buck  Tavern — Dined  at  Downs's  & 
lodged  at  Newtown  upon  Chester 

29.  Breakfasted  at   Rockhall  &  reachd  Annapolis  in  the 
Afternoon. — 

30.  Breakfasted  at  MX  Cal  verts122  &  reachd  home   ab*.  3 
oclock.123 

31.  At  home  all  day. — 

tion  the  general  removed  to  Alexandria,  Va.,  and  became  a  neighbor  of 
Washington's,  though  he  soon  afterwards  removed  to  Winchester,  where 
he  died.  He  had  a  son,  Isaac  who  resided  at  Georgetown,  D.  C.,  dying 
there  in  1829. 

123  Benedict  Calvert,  esq. :  Mount  Airy,  the  seat  of  the  Calvert  family  in 
Maryland,  is  in  Prince  Qeorge  County,  situated  about  15  miles  from  the 
city  of  Washington  and  6  from  Upper  Marlboro.  The  land  was  bought 
from  Ignatius  Digges.  This  estate  was  inherited  by  Benedict  from  his 
father,  Charles  Calvert,  sixth  Lord  Baltimore,  then  it  descended  to  his  eld- 
est son,  Edward  Henry,  who  married  Elizabeth  Briscoe ;  George,  a  second 
son,  married  an  heiress,  a  Miss  Rosalie  Steel,  of  Maryland,  and  established 
his  house  near  Bladensburg,  the  beautiful  estate  known  as  "  Riversdale," 
which  is  often  erroneously  referred  to  by  writers  as  the  old  family  estate 
of  the  Calverts.  Benedict  died  at  Mount  Airy  in  1788,  had  three  daugh- 
ters, Eleanor,  Elizabeth  and  Ariana.  Eleanor  married  John  Parke  Cnstis, 
the  son  of  Mrs.  Martha  Washington  by  her  first  husband;  and  the  ward  of 
Gen.  Geo.  Washington ;  she  bore  him  four  children.  Her  husband  died  at 
Eltham,  of  camp  fever  contracted  at  Yorktown,  in  1781.  Elizabeth  mar- 
ried Charles  Stuart,  esq.,  of  "Dodon,"  near  Annapolis,  Md.  The  third 
daughter  never  married. 

123  As  of  interest  in  connection  with  the  first  Continental  Congress,  the 
following  transcript  is  made  from  Washington's  cashbook  of  moneys  paid 
out  by  him  for  purchases  and  for  his  expenses  while  in  and  traveling  to 
and  from  Philadelphia : 
Sept.  4,  1774.  By  travelling  Expe8.  to  the  Congress  at  Phila. 

pr  memm.  Book £10-11-12 

By  Sundries  purchased  there — viz. 

a  pr  of  Boots  for  Servr* £2.   5.   0 

"      6  a  pr  of  Shoes  «fec  Do 15.0 

"     17  Pock1,  hand'f  •  4 19.0 

"     19  5  yd«.  of  Chints  a  10/ £2.    10.   0 


154  AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


By 

Sundries  purchased  there  —  viz.  —  Continued. 

Sept.  19,  1774. 

7iyd8.  of  Cotton  

£2.    14.   4 

"    25 

lp8.  of  Irish  Linn.  a  5/3  

6.   13.10 

"    30 

1  Cotton  Gown  7  y^  a  5/  

1.    15.   0 

1  dozn.  Pock*.  Hand  fs  a  4/3  

2.    11.   0 

1  pr.  Silk  Hose  

1.      4.  0 

Bed  Furniture  &  mark*  

55.    12.   6 

3  Bedsteads  

12.      0.   0 

1  Tooth  Brush  

1.   3 

1  Razor  Strap  

11.   0 

6i  ydl.  Calico  a  7/6  

2.     8.   9 

Mr.  Marchintons  Acct    ) 
besides  £3  for  Col  Le«  J  

£3.     8.  3 

October  5th.  viz 

12  pr  Woolcards  

1.   10.  0 

6prCotton    "    

1.     0.   0 

1  Pocket  Book  

15.   0 

8*. 

1  Bell  &  Furniture  

1.   16.10 

lp  Irish  Linen  

4.   13.  9 

Mr.  Barrels  Acct  

5.     7.  6 

"       10*. 

lib  Snuff  

7.   6 

Mr.  Marchintons  2nd  Acct  

19.     4.   0 

Mr.  Simpson  for  shoes  

4.     6.   0 

u        12th. 

Mr.  Marchinton's  3rd.  Acct  

15.     6.   9 

2pTofwhiteRib'dHose  

15.   0 

"        13th. 

1  Pocket  Book  

1.     5.  0 

1  Watch  Key  

2.  6 

A  Sword  Chain  

2.     0.  0 

8  Cakes  Shoe  Blacking  

12.   0 

19*h. 

20iyd».  paintd.  Ribbon  

2.   16.  0 

"       20th. 

Mr  Wm  Milner's  2d  Acct  

3.  15.   0 

"       21 

4  yd«  painted  Ribben  

9.   0 

10  yd«  of  edging  

10.  0 

4pr  Nutt  Crackers  

12.   0 

1  Small  hand  vice  

5.   6 

u        22nd. 

1  Dozn.  pr  coarse  yn.  Hose  

2.  10.  0 

1  pr  yarn  Gloves  

2.  6 

"        24th. 

lpr  Buckskin  Gloves  

7.   6 

2pr  Shoes  for  self  

1.     3.   6 

Cloak  for  my  Mother  

10.     2.    1 

An  artificial  Magnet  

1.  6 

10  yards  of  edging  

10.   0 

"       35th. 

Mr.  Wm.  Milnor's  3rd.  Acct  

15.     8.   6 

"      "          "        GfishRimbs  •. 

1.     2.   6 

a  Pock4.  Book  M™  W  n  

4.    15.   0 

apr  of  Gloves  

3.   6 

a  Chaizeformy  mother  

40.     0    0 

Sundry  Pamphlets  

17.   6 

459.   16.  0 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.     155 


By  Sundries  purchased  there— viz. — Continued. 

October27th.              By  Expens  in  Philad* 62.     2.4 

By  Charity  there 5.   10.  2 

By  Cash  given  away 13.  10.  0 

By  Servants 3.     4.  0 

"       30*.              By  Exp"  in  returning  from  Phd* 8.  15.  1 


363.   16.  9 

Deduct   25   pr  C*  Exch*  to  reduce  it  to 
VirginiaCurnr 112.   15.4 


£251.     1.  5 


INDEX  TO  DR.  TONER'S  PAPER. 


Aberdeen,  Scotland,  127. 

Abingdon  on  Potomac,  116. 

Ablest  of  debaters,  128. 

Abstraction  of  manuscripts,  108. 

Accotink,  village  of,  124, 144. 

Account  of  tbe  weather,  129, 142. 

Act  of  assembly  for  a  ferry,  123. 

Act  of  Congress  for  purchase  of  papers,  87. 

Adam,  Robert,  119, 120. 

Adams,  John,  102,  106, 132,  134, 139, 142,145, 

147, 150. 

Adams,  Samuel,  142. 
Address  to  inhabitants  of  Quebec,  110. 
Address  to  the  States,  138. 
Addresses,  etc., bundle  of,  86. 
Adjutant- General  of  American  Army,  145. 
Agent  for  sale  of  papers,  94, 
Agents  of  Congress,  140. 
Aldermen  of  Philadelphia,  140. 
Alexander,  John,  123. 
Alexandria,  Va.,  109, 116, 117, 120, 123, 153. 

Incorporated,  119, 120. 

Trustees  of,  119. 
Alexandria  County,  Va.,  125. 
Albany,  N.  T.,  90. 
Allan,  Andrew,  134, 142. 
Allan,  James,  135, 

Diary  of,  135. 

Allen,  Chief  Justice  William,  134, 152. 
Allison,  Rev.  Dr.,  147. 
Almanacs,  diary  written  in,  74. 
Alnwich  Latin  school,  12L 
American  Army,  76. 
American  grievances,  151. 
American  independence,  106, 121. 
American  liberty,  127. 
American  Philosophical  Society,  132,  141, 

143,  144, 146, 148, 149. 
American  Republic,  102. 
Anatomical  preparations,  148. 
Anatomy,  lectures  on,  132. 
Annapolis,  Md.,116, 120, 125, 129, 130, 145, 153. 

Bar  of,  134. 

Packet  ferry  at,  130. 
Anne  Arundel  town,  130. 
Apollo  room,  113. 


Appropriation  bill,  93. 

Aquia  Creek,  117. 

Aquia  Creek  church,  118. 

Aquia  village,  117. 

Archer,  W.  S.,  chairman  foreign  relations, 

83,  93. 

Archives  of  the  United  States,  80,  81, 82,  91. 
Argus,  published  at  Richmond,  133. 
Armory  in  the  Revolution,  131. 
Armstrong,  John,  106. 
Army,  critical  condition  of,  136. 
Army  officers,  letters  to,  82,  84. 
Army  returns,  87. 
Army  supplies,  138. 
Arnold,  Benedict,  86,  142. 
Artificers  of  New  York,  138. 
Artillery,  resignations  in,  87. 
Assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  138, 145. 

List  of,  151. 

Dinner  given  by,  150, 152. 
Assembly  of  Virginia,  133. 
Attempt  to  bribe,  145. 
Attorney  general  of  Pennsylvania,  134,139. 
Attorneys-general,  Virginia,  115. 
Autograph  collectors,  105,  106. 
Autograph  drafts  of  letters,  100. 
Autograph  letters,  98,  99. 
Autograph  letters  of  Washington,  97,  104, 
105. 

In  Pennsylvania  Historical  Society,  104. 
Autograph  letters  on  the  war,  94. 

Their  lodging  place,  100. 
Autograph  papers  as  gifts,  74,  79. 

Taken  and  copies  substituted,  90. 
Autographic  Washington  remains,  106. 
Avenant,  D',  Charles,  133. 
Aylett's,  117. 
Baker,  William  S.,  105. 
Ball  in  England,  142,  150. 
•Ball  in  the  Statehouse,  137. 
Ballroom,  elegant,  131. 
Balls  and  assemblies,  142. 
Bank  of  Alexandria,  125. 
Bank  of  North  America,  140. 
Bank  of  the  United  States,  140. 
Barbecue  feast,  124. 

157 


158 


AMERICAN  HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


Barbadoes,  Journal  to,  94. 

Barclay,  Thomas,  149. 

Bar  of  Williamsburg,  Va.,  115. 

Bartholomew,  Benjamin,  151. 

Bassett,  Col.  Burwell,  113, 116. 

Bassett,  William,  113. 

Bath,  England,  121. 

Battle  of  Great  Meadows,  121. 

Battle  of  Monmouth,  124. 

Bayard,  Col.  John,  152. 

Baylor,  Col.  George,  98. 

Bedford  County,  Pa.,  152. 

Belle  Air,  96. 

Belle  Haven,  123. 

Belles-Letter  Society,  Borne,  148. 

Belvoir  burnt,  122, 124. 

Belvoir  estate  on  Potomac,  119, 121, 122, 124. 

Left  to  Ferdinand  Fairfax,  122. 

Rented,  122. 

Berdt,  De,  Dennis,  agent,  145. 
Berdt,  De,  Esther,  145. 
Berkeley  Springs,  125. 
Berkeley,  Sir  William,  128. 
Berks  County,  Pa.,  152. 
Bertram,  Dr.,  146. 
Berwick,  England,  121. 
Sevan's,  147,  148, 149, 153. 
Biddle,  Edward,  152. 
Bill  of  Rights,  128. 
Birch's  Sons,  Phila.,  105. 
Bladensburg,  Md.,  124,  153. 
Blake,  Mr.,  89. 

Bland,  Col.  Richard,  114, 141. 
Bland,  Theodoric,  106. 
Board  of  war,  86,  136. 
Bond,  Dr.  Thomas,  145. 
Book-plate  fraud,  107. 
Book  of  experiments  and  observations,  94. 
Books  and  charts,  78. 
Books  and  manuscripts,  79. 
Books  and  pamphlets,  86. 
Books  packed  for  shipment,  95. 
Books  of  invoices,  92. 
Books  owned  by  Washington,  79. 
Boston  Athenaeum,  78,  95. 
"Boston  gentlemen",  members,  95, 141, 142. 
Bowling  Green,  117. 
Bowie,  Mr.,  76, 77, 78. 
Braddock,  General  Edward,  94,  119. 

Defeat  of,  81, 83, 115. 

Expedition  of,  121. 
Brandywine,  battle  of,  145, 147, 150. 
Brent,  George,  128. 
Brevoort,  James  Carson,  96, 99. 
Bridge  at  Fredericksburg,  117. 
Brigade  returns,  89. 
Briscoe,  Elizabeth,  153. . 
British  army,  costumes  of,  97. 

Officers  of,  107. 

Attacked  at  Princeton,  139. 

Capture  New  York  City,  134. 


British  colonial  army,  surgeon  of,  121. 

British  colonies,  111. 

British  evacuate  Boston,  136. 

British  Government  and  the  colonies,  135. 

British  Government  and  policy  of,  135. 

British  in  possession  of  Philadelphia,  135,140. 

British  Museum,  95. 

British  officers,  86. 

Broadbrims,  151. 

Broadhead,  Daniel,  106. 

Brock,  R.  A.,  98. 

Brompton,  England,  115. 

Brown,  Dr.  Gustavus,  125. 

Brown,  John,  151. 

Brown,  Margaret,  125. 

Buck  tavern,  131, 153. 

Bucks  County,  Pa.,  148, 151. 

Bundles  of  papers,  86. 

Bush  Hill,  J.  Hamilton  at,  144. 

Butterfield,  C.  W,,  102. 

Bybury  Township,  Pa.,  149. 

Byrns's  house  of  entertainment,  149. 

Cabinet  papers,  85. 

Cadwallader,  Fanny,  147. 

Cadwallader,  John,  106, 146. 

Cadwallader,  Dr.  Thomas,  142, 146. 

Calendar  of  Washington  letters,  100. 

Calvert,  Ariana,118, 153. 

Calvert,  Benedict,  106, 116, 118, 153. 

Calvert,  Charles,  153. 

Calvert,  Edward  Henry,  153. 

Calvert,  Eleanor  ["Nelly"],  116,  125, 151. 

Calvert,  Elizabeth,  118,  153. 

Calvert,  George,  153. 

Calvert  family  in  Maryland,  153. 

Cambridge,  Mass.,  84,  88,  90,  95, 136. 

Cambridge,  University  of,  79. 

Cameron  and  Fairfax  street,  119. 

Campbell,  Adj.  Colin,  114. 

Campell,  Mrs.,  113, 114,  116. 

Cannon  and  Prince  street,  131. 

Capital  of  Mary  land,  130. 

Capital  of  Virginia,  113, 130. 

Carlisle,  Pa.,  138. 

Carlyle,  George,  118. 

Carlyle,  Col.  John,  118, 119, 125. 

Carlyle,  Miss  Nancy,  118,  121. 

Carlyle,  Sarah  ["Sally"],  118, 121. 

Caroline  County,  Va.,  126. 

Carpenter's  Hall,  133,  140. 

Carr,  Dabney,  127. 

Carrington,  Edward,  106. 

Carroll,  Charles,  106. 

Carroll,  Daniel,  106. 

Carson,  Landlord,  131. 

Carter,  London,  106. 

Cary,  Archibald,  106. 

Cary,  John,  LL.  D.,  103. 

Cary,  Robert,  106. 

Cary,  Sarah,  122. 

Cary.  Col.  Wilson,  122. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.        159 


Gary's  map,  130. 

Cash  book,  transcript  from,  153. 

Cash,  memorandums  of,  94. 

Catalogue  sales  of  "Washington  letters,  106. 

Cathedral,  Philadelphia,  147. 

Catholic  church,  Pennsylvania,  147. 

Catholic  services  at  St.  Mary's,  147. 

Cavalry  resignations,  87. 

Centennial  Exposition,  97. 

Chamberlayne,  Ann  EMly,  113. 

Chancellor  of  University  of  New  York,  96. 

Chapel,  William  and  Mary  College,  115. 

Chapman,  Benjamin,  151. 

Characters  to  whom  Washington    wrote, 

106. 

Charles  County,  Md.,  125,  128. 
Chastellux,  Marquis  de,  101,  124. 
Chastellux's  travels  in  America,  101. 
Chatham,  Lord,  111. 
Chesapeake  and  Ohio  Canal,  80. 
Chesapeake  Bay,  130. 
Cheseldon,  Prof.,  143. 
Chester,  Pa.,  132,   153. 
Chester  County,  Pa.,  151. 
Chester  River,  130, 131, 
Chester-town,  Md.,  130,  131,  134. 

Capital  of  Kent  County,  131. 
Chester-town  custom-house,  131. 
Chew,  Benjamin,  139. 
Chew,  Judge  Samuel,  139. 

Hospitality  of,  139. 

Chews' s  stone  house  at  Germ  an  town,  139. 
Chief  justice  of  Pennsylvania,  142,  145. 
Childs,  George  W.,  105. 
Christ  Church,  Episcopal    ["new"],  141, 

144, 149. 

Christ  Church,  Fairfax  Parish,  119. 
Christ,  Henry,  152. 
Christiana  ferry,  132. 
Churchill,  Miss  Elizabeth,  115. 
Cincinnati,  papers  relating  to,  86. 
Circular  barn,  122. 
City  Cavalry,  139. 
City  of  Philadelphia,  151,  137. 

Gives  a  dinner,  137. 
City  Tavern,  or  New  Tavern,  132, 133, 140. 

Entertainment  at,  152. 
Civil  and  military  affairs,  133. 
Claims  against  the  United  States,  80. 
Clerk's  office,  Caroline  County,  Va.,  126. 
Clifton,  William,  118. 
Clinical  lectures  in  Philadelphia,  146. 
Clinton,  George,  106. 
Cloak  for  mother,  154. 
Clothing  returns,  90. 
Club,  a  popular  drink,  134. 
Club  at  New  Tavern,  13J. 
Clubs,  social,  134. 
Clymer,  George,  146. 
Coach,  raffle  for,  115. 
Coleman,  Godfrey,  146. 


College  of  Philadelphia,  132,  135,  141,  143, 
146,  147,  149. 

Medical  Department,  148. 
College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Lon- 
don, 148. 

College  of  William  and  Mary,  113. 
Colonial  and  Revolutionary  history,  91. 
Colonial  and  Revolutionary  papers,  82. 
Colonial  Congress,  (1765)  138. 
Colonial  landmarks,  137. 
Colonial  History  of  Virginia,  97. 
Colony  of  Virginia,  120. 
Combe,  Rev.  Mr.,  145. 
Commander-in-chief,  81, 82, 84, 98, 102, 145. 
Commissaries  and  quartermasters,  87. 
Commissary  of  supplies,  119. 
Committee  on  Commerce,  138. 
Committee  of  Correspondence,  115, 126, 127, 

140, 145. 

Committee  on  Foreign  Affairs,  83, 91. 
Committee  of  safety,  126, 128, 146, 149. 
Common  council  of  Philadelphia,  135, 140. 
Common  pleas  court,  140. 
Company  pay  roll,  86. 
Compass  made  by  L>.  Rittenhouse,  97. 
Confederation  of  the  colonies,  126. 
Confederate  union  suggested,  133.' 
Confiscation  of  the  Penn  estate,  149. 
Congress,  86, 91, 145, 146, 148, 149. 

Archives  of,  76. 

At  Albany,  149. 

Of  delegates,  133. 

President  of,  80, 81. 

Report  to,  on  value  of  library,  84. 
Connecticut  archives,  98. 
Connecticut  line  resignations,  87. 
Connecticut,  state  of  collections  in,  104. 
Constitution  of  United  States,  74, 128. 

Adoption  of,  82. 

Of  Virginia,  128. 
Contagions  diseases,  136. 
Continental  Army,  104, 132. 
Continental  cavalry,  145. 
Continental  Congress,  73, 83, 84, 114, 115, 126, 
126,  128,  129,  132,  133,  136, 138, 141, 144, 
145, 150, 152, 153. 

(1774)  109,110,127. 

Adjourns  to  meet  again,  133. 

Members  of,  152. 

Note  of,  150. 

Continental  service,  147. 
Convention  at  Albany,  133. 

Of  Virginia,  113,114,127. 

To  frame  the  Constitution,  136, 138. 

To  ratify  Constitution,  127, 128, 150. 
Conway  Cabal,  147. 
Conway,  Moncure  D.,  99. 
Cooke,  Nicholas,  106. 
Coolness  toward  Washington,  150. 
Copies  of  all  of  Washington's  writing*  so- 
licited, 106. 


160 


AMERICAN   HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION. 


Copies  of  letters  sent,  75. 

Corcoran  Art  Gallery,  142. 

Corcoran,  William  W.,  97, 98. 

Corporation  of  Philadelphia,  137. 

Countinghouse,  152. 

County  justice,  126. 

County  lieutenant,  126. 

Court-house  records,  117. 

Court  of  appeals  of  Virginia,  127. 

Court  of  common  pleas,  142. 

Cox,  Daniel,  133. 

Craik,  Dr.  James,  76, 77, 106, 119, 121, 124. 

Craik,  Sarah,  125. 

Crawford,  William,  106. 

Cromwell's  army,  149. 

Crossed  the  Delaware,  139. 

Crown,  employed  hy,  144. 

Crown  officers,  150. 

Cumberland  County,  Pa.,  152. 

Cushing,  Thomas,  142. 

Custis  estate,  116. 

Custis,  recollections  of,  124. 

Custis,  Daniel  Parke,  116. 

Custis,  Eleanor  Parke  ["Nelly"],  90,116. 

Custis,  Elizabeth  Parke,  116. 

Custis,  George  Washington    Parke,  116, 

125. 
Custis,   John   Parke  ["Jacky"],   116,119, 

125,  153. 
Custis,  Martha  Parke  ["Patsy"],  113,  116, 

'l20. 

Custom-house,  131. 
Cutter,  C.  A.,  librarian,  95. 
Cyphering  book,  93. 
Dalton,  Capt.  John,  119, 121. 
Dancing,  popularity  of,  142. 
Dandridge,  Anna  Maria,  113. 
Dandridge,  Bartholomew,  106. 
Dandridge,  Col.  John,  113. 
Dandridge,  Martha,  116. 
Dawaon,  Elizabeth,  115. 
Dawson's  Historical  Magazine,  105. 
Dayton,  H.  O.,  89. 
Declaration  of  Independence,  126,  138,  139, 

140,  150,  152. 

Defense  of  colonial  rights,  111. 
Delancy,  Mr.,  135. 
Delaware  River,  131,  132. 
Delaware  State  line,  131. 
Delegates  chosen  to  Congress,  114. 
Delivery  of  papers  to  Government,  88. 
Department  of  State,  77,  80,  81,  86,  88,  89, 

91,  92,  93. 
Library  of,  83. 

Washington  papers  in,  89,  90. 
Departments  of  the  Government,  79,  84. 
Department  of  the  Treasury,  75. 
Depreciating  the  currency,  152. 
Deputies  appointed  by  assembly,  151. 
Deputies  to  convention,  113. 


Descriptive  catalogue,  gift  for,  95. 

Devise  of  library,  75. 

Diary,  Washington's,  after  the  war,  94. 

All  existing  parts  assembled,  109. 

Excerpt  from,  73,  79,  88,  91,  92,  94,  97, 
108,  109,  113,  126. 

Volumes  for  1762  and  1767  missing,  94. 
Dickens,  Mr.,  93. 
Dickinson  College,  138,150. 
Dickinson,  John,  106,  110,  137,  150,  151. 
Dickinson,  Somuel,  137. 
Digges,  Miss,  124. 
Digges,  Ignatius,  153. 
Digges,  William,  125,  126. 
Dined  with  the  assembly  of  Pennsylvania, 

150. 

Dinner  at  Chew's,  140. 
Dinner  to  members  of  Congress,  137,  150. 
Dinwiddie,  Governor  Robert,  111,  114. 

Papers  of,  97. 

Diplomatic  address  of  Washington,  109. 
Director-general  of  hospitals,  121,  148. 
Director- general  of  military  hospital,  132. 
Dispersion   of  Washington's   library   and 

papers,  79,  91. 

Dispersion  of  Washington  relics,  107. 
"Dodon,"  an  estate  in  Maryland,  153. 
Dogue  Neck,  128. 

Dogue  Run,  plantation,  116,  122,  123. 
Dougherty,  Bernard,  152. 
Down's  crossroads.  131. 
Down's  Tavern,  131,  153. 
Dowse,  Thomas,  95. 
Dreer,  Ferdinand  J.,  105,  108, 114. 
Dress  sword  of  Gen.  Washington,  96. 
Dressing  table,  125. 
Drexel,  Joseph  W.,  105. 
Duche,  Rev.  Jacob,  141. 
Duel,  Con  way  and  Cadwallader,  147. 
Dumfries  Village,  Va.,  117. 
Dunmore,  Lord,  governor  of  Virginia,  76, 

115, 127. 

Eastern  Neck  Island,  130. 
Eastern  Shore  of  Maryland,  147. 
E-ten,  Governor,  135, 

Editors  of  Washington's  writings,  101,  103. 
Edmunds,  William,  152. 
Egan,  Right  Rev.  Michael,  147. 
Egle,  W.  H.,  151. 
Eilbeck,  Col.  William,  128. 
Elder  in  Presbyterian  church,  152. 
Eloquence  of  Patrick  Henry,  127. 
"Eltham,"  estate  of  Col.  Bassett,  113,  116, 

153. 

Emmet,  Dr.  Thomas  Addis,  105. 
England  and  the  continent,  148. 
English  colonies,  133. 
Entertained  by  the  assembly,  151. 
Erskine,  Lord,  147. 
Estaing,  d',  Count  Charles  Hector,  106. 


GEORGE   WASHINGTON  S   DIARY,    1774 TONER.        161 


Estate  given  with  library,  74. 

Evacuation  of  Boston,  136. 

Everett,  Hon.  Edward,  78,  84,  85,  88,  99. 

Ewell,  Mariamne,  121. 

Ewing,  James,  152. 

Executor  of  Gen.  Washington's  will,  79. 

Expedition  to  the  Ohio,  121. 

Extracts  from  the  Virginia  Charter,  128. 

"Fabius,"  a  nom  de  plume,  138. 

"Fair  Hill,"  138. 

Fairfax.  Eev.  Bryan,  122,  206. 

Fairfax  County,  119,  120,  121,  127,  128. 

Fairfax  County,  mass  meeting,  109. 

Fairfax  County  resolutions,  128. 

Fairfax  Court-House,  125. 

Fairfax,  George  William,  106,  118,  124. 

Sale  at  Belvoir,  121. 
Fairfax,  Lord  Thomas,  122,  124. 
Fairfax,  Sarah,  119. 

Fairfax,  Hon.  William,  106,  119,  121,  124. 
Family  papers,  106. 
Family  relics  parted  with,  97. 
Farewell  Address,  first  draft  of,  96. 
Farmer's  letters,  138. 
Farms,  each  had  an  outfit,  118. 
Father  of  our  country,  75,  82. 
Federal  convention,  128. 
Ferree,  Joseph,  152. 
Ferry  farm  plantation,  116. 
Ferry  to  Maryland,  118. 
Fick,  professor  at  Esslingen,  87. 
Finley,  Rev.  Samuel,  147,  149. 
Fisher,  W.,  Mayor,  139. 
Fisher's  Island,  136. 
Fisheries  at  Mount  Vernon,  120. 
Fishing  Landing  on  Posey  farm,  123. 
Fishing  Landing,  120. 
First  aide-de-camp,  136.  ' 
First  Regiment  of  Pennsylvania,  136. 
Fitzgerald,  Col.  John,  124. 
Fitzhugh,  Mr.,  123. 
Fitzhugb,  John,  of  "Marmion,"  123. 
Fitzhugh,  William,  123. 
Flummery  and  jellies,  140. 
Flying  camp,  132. 
Foot,  Mr.,  99. 
Force,  Peter,  90,  92. 
Ford,  Worthington  C.,  103. 
Foreign  Affairs  Committee,  86. 
Formation  of  the  Government,  82,  84. 
Forsyth;  John,  Secretary,  88,  89,  91. 
Fort  Necessity,  121. 
Fort  Washington,  126. 
Foster  father,  116. 
Foulke,  John,  151. 
Fox  chase,  128. 

Fox,  George,  Society  of  Friends,  140. 
France  and  Great  Britain,  77. 
Francis,  Tench,  142. 

S.  Mis.  57 11 


Franklin,  Dr.  Benjamin,  102,  106,  139,  146, 

148, 149. 

Fredericksburg,  Va.,  109,  116,  117, 139. 
Free  institutions,  75. 
Free  school  at  Chestertown,  131. 
Free  speech  in  America,  144. 
French,  Daniel,  119. 
French  and  Indian  war,  123, 147,  149. 
French  army  in  America,  101. 
French  forces  in  America,  107. 
French  Huguenot,  152. 
French  war,  papers  on,  81,  83,  85. 
Friends'  Academy,  137. 
Friends  in  Pennsylvania  A  ssembly,  150. 

Society  of,  133. 
Fry,  Joshua,  106. 
Galena,  Md.,  131. 
Galloway,  Joseph,  140,  151. 
Galloway,  Samuel,  139. 
Gardens  and  farming,  136. 
Gates,  Horatio,  106. 
General  and  field  officers,  86. 
Georgetown,  D.  C.,  81,  86,  88,  91,  123,  130. 
George  Washington  and  Mount  Vernou,  99. 
Georgia,  State  of,  105. 
Gennantown,  Pa.,  battle  of,  132,  139,  145, 

147, 150. 

Gibbons,  James,  151. 
Gilmor,  Judge  Robert,  108. 
Gold  watch  chain  and  two  seals,  96. 
Gooch,  Governor  William,  114. 
Gordon,  Dr.  William,  76,  106. 
Government,  formation  of,  82. 
Government  of  the  United  States,  80. 

Papers  relating  to,  90. 
Government  records,  93. 
Governor's  Club,  134. 
Governors  of  States,  81,  82,  84,  86. 
' '  Grange, "  estate  of  Robert  Morria,  139. 
Gratz,  Simon,  105. 
Gray,  George,  151. 
Grayson,  William,  1C6. 
Great  Britain  and  the  Colonies,  128. 
Great  meetinghouse,  141. 
Greene,  Nathanael,  106. 
Greenway  court,  122, 124. 
Griffen,  Mr.,  135, 152. 
Grover,  Martin,  96. 
Gunning  Green,  117. 
Gunston  Hall,  119,  127,  128. 
Gunther,  Mr.,  of  Chicago,  105. 
Halltown,  Jefferson  County,  Va.,  96. 
Hamilton,  Dr.,  of  Annapolis,  145. 
Hamilton,  Alexander,  102,  106. 
Hamilton,  Andrew,  137,  139,  144. 
Hamilton,  James,  137,  144. 
Hamilton,  Lieut,  Gov.,  of  Pa.,  144. 
Hamilton,  William,  136,  137. 
Hamilton,  Capt.  W.,  149. 


162 


AMERICAN   HISTORICAL    ASSOCIATION, 


Hampton,  Va.,  122. 

Hancock,  John,  86,  106,  142. 

Hand,  Edward,  106. 

Hanover  County,  Va.,  127. 

Hanson,  Elizabeth,  125. 

Hanson's  "Old  Kent,"  125. 

Harper's  Ferry,  96. 

Harper's  Magazine,  105. 

Harrisburg,  Pa.,  137,  151. 

Harrison,  Benjamin,  106,  114,  115,  141. 

Harrison,  R.  H.,  106. 

Harrison,  Sybil,  119. 

Hasty  studies  of  Washington's  life,  103. 

Havermyer,  "Win.  A.,  105. 

Hazen,  Moses,  106. 

Headquarters,  81. 

Heath,  Maj.  Gen.  William,  101,  106. 

Henry,  Alexander,  127. 

Henry,  John,  127. 

Henry,  Patrick,  102,  106,  110,  114,  126, 127. 

Chosen  Governor  of  Virginia,  127. 

Opposed  the  constitution,  127. 
Herbert,  William,  125. 
"Hermitage,"  in  Queen  Anne  County,  Md., 

134. 

Hessians,  capture  of,  at  Trenton,  147. 
High  Court  of  Errors  and  Appeals,  139, 

142. 

Hill,  Mr.,  138. 
Hillegas,  Michael,  151. 
Historical  students,  103. 
Historical  treasures,  85. 
Historical  value  of  autograph  material,  108. 
History  of  our  country,  83. 
History  of  the  Revolution,  76. 
Holderness,  Lort,  i33. 
Hopkinson,  Francis,  106. 
Horses,  servants  and  baggage,  110. 
Hospital,  Pennsylvania,  141. 

Corner  stone  laid,  141. 
Hospital  department  of  Army,  148. 
Hospital  returns,  86,  87. 
Hospital  training,  142. 
Hospitals  in  Paris  and  London,  145. 
Hotel,  largest  in  Phila.,  132,  133. 
House  of  Burgesses,  113, 114,  117,  126,  127. 

Election  returns,  93. 
Household  expenses,  96. 
Howe,  Kobert  (M.  C.),  106. 
Howson,  Robert,  123. 
Humphreys,  Charles,  151. 
Humphreys,  David,  106. 
Hunter,  Dr.  John,  132. 
Hunter,  Samuel,  152. 
Hunter,  Dr.  Wm.,  132. 
Hunting  Creek,  123. 
"Huntingfleld,"  130. 
Hynson,  Nathaniel,  131. 
Hiac  Passion,  essay  on,  143. 
Independence,  struggle  for,  80,  81,  98. 


Independence  Hall,  137. 

Indian  and  Revolutionary  war,  121. 

Indians  invade  frontier,  115. 

Inner  Temple,  London,  114. 

Inspection  returns,  87,  89. 

Inspection  rolls  of  negroes,  86. 

Interred  in  chapel  of  William  and  Mary  Col- 

lege,  115. 

Invoices,  two  books  of,  92. 
Invoices  and  correspondence,  94. 
Ireland,  124. 

Irvine,  Brig.  Gen.  William,  102,  106. 
Island  of  St.  Christopher,  152. 
Jacobs,  Israel,  151. 
Jacobs,  John,  151. 
Jacob's  staff,  97. 
James  City  County,  113. 
James  River,  113. 
Jamestown,  113. 
Jay,  John,  106,  110. 

Jefferson,  Thomas,  100,  102,  107,  127,  128. 
Jefferson's  library,    purchased  by  United 

States,  84. 

Jennings,  Edmund,  sr.,  115. 
Jennings,  Edmund,  115. 
Jenifer,  Dr.  Daniel,  125. 
Johnson,  Thomas,  107,  125. 
Jones,  John,  142. 
Jones,  Joseph,  102,  107. 
Journal  of  Journey  over  the  Mountains,  94, 

122. 

Journals  of  Congress,  87. 
Journey  to  Philadelphia,  126. 
Journey  over  the  mountains  in  1784,  94. 
Keepsakes  to  friends,  74. 
Kent  County,  Del.,  137. 
Kent  County,  Md.,  125,  130, 131,  147. 
Kenmore  House,  117. 
King  George  County,  117,  123. 
u  King  Herod  "  won  the  race,  135. 
King  William  County,  116. 
King  and  Queen  County,  116. 
King  William  Court-House,  116,  117. 
King's  Attorney  of  Virginia,  114. 
Kirkbride,  Robert,  151. 
Knox,  Henry,  102,  107. 
Lafayette,  General,  107. 

Correspondence  with  Washington,  102. 

Diary  of,  101. 

Memoirs  of,  101. 

Pistol  presented  by,  96. 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  136. 
Lancaster  and  Philadelphia,  137. 
Lancaster  County,  152. 
Land  office  of  Virginia,  98. 
Langhorne,  John,  92. 
Last  words  written  by  Washington,  »4. 
Laurens,  John,  107. 
Lawrence,  Elizabeth,  13*. 
Lawrence,  John,  135. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.     161 


Lear,  Tobias,  78, 100, 107. 

Lectures  on  anatomy,  132. 

Ledger  from  1750  to  1772, 94. 

Lee,  Arthur,  124. 

Lee,  Charles,  107, 134. 

Lee,  Henry,  102, 107. 

Lee,  Hon.  Richard  Henry,  101,  107,  110,  114. 

124,  127,  140, 141,  142. 
Lee,  Richard  Henry,  grandson,  101. 
Lee,  Col.  R.  H.,  lodged,  132,  134. 
Legislature  of  Mary  land,  147. 
Legislature  of  Pennsylvania,  136. 
Lenox  Lihrary,  N.  T.,  105. 
Letter  books,  Washington's,  77. 
Letters  and  miscellaneous  papers,  85. 
Letters  of  Gen.  "Washington,  80,  101,  102. 
Letters  to  Gen.  Washington,  94. 
Lewis,  Betty,  78,  117. 
Lewis,  Col.  Fielding,  117. 
Lewis,  Francis,  117. 
Lewis,  John,  117. 
Lewis,  Lawrence,  90. 
Lewis,  Warner,  117. . 
Lexington  fight,  136. 

Library  and  manuscripts  of  Washington, 
79,  95. 

At  Mount  Vernon,  dispersion  of,  110. 

Bequeathed,  75. 

In  order,  74. 
Library  of  Congress,  102,  106. 

Of  value  to  United  States,  75. 
Life  and  writings  of  Washington,  79. 
Lincoln,  Benjamin,  107. 
List  of  polls  of  election,  93. 
"  Literary  leather  dresser,"  95. 
Literary  remains  of  Washington,  97. 
Little  Tails,  123. 
Little  Hunting  Creek,  118. 
Livermore,  Mr.,  95. 
Livingston,  Robert,  107. 
Livingston,  William,  107. 
Lodgings,  113,  114,  115,  116,  137,  148,  149, 
152,  153. 

At  Dr.  Shippen's,  134. 
London  and  Paris  hospitals,  149. 
Long  Island,  145. 

Retreat  from,  136. 
Long  Island  Historical  Society,  99. 
Lord  Howe,  140. 

Lossing's  "Home  of  Washington,"  78. 
Louisa  Court  House,  127. 
Loyalty  to  the  Crown,  134,  135. 
Luzerne  County,  146. 
McCarty,  Ann,  120. 
McDougall,  Alexander,  107. 
McGuire,  J.  C.,  105. 
McHenry,  James,  107. 
McLane,  Mr.,  91,  92. 
McLane,  Allen,  107. 


McLane,  Louis,  sr.,  81. 

Madison,  James,  102,  107,  128. 

Madison's  collection  of  Washington  letters, 

100. 

Magazine  of  American  History,  105. 
Mansion  House  plantation,  116. 
Manuscript  books  and  papers,  94. 
Manuscript  Journals  of  Congress,  86. 
Manuscripts  of  Gen.  Washington,  79. 

Records,  volume  of,  85. 

Relating  to  French  war,  86. 

Taken  from  Mount  Vernon,  108. 

Taken  to  Boston,  79. 
Marchinton,  Mr.,  154. 
Marketing  the  fish  from  Mount  Vernon,  12d. 
Marking  pin,  surveyor's,  97. 
"Mannion,"  123. 
Marshall,  Judge  John,  74,  107. 
Marshall,  Thomas,  in  Maryland,  123. 
Marshall's  Life  of  Washington,  102. 
Maryland,  State  of,  105,  110,  137. 
Maryland  Line,  resignations  in,  87. 

State  line,  131. 

Mason,  George,  107,  110,  124,  126,  127,  128. 
Masonic  order,  notice  of,  120,  128,  152. 
Mason's  Neck,  127. 
Mass  meetings,  133,  136,  152. 
Mass  meetings  in  Philadelphia,  140. 
Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  98,  103. 
Massachusetts  members  in  Congress,  142. 
Massachusetts  officers,  resignations  of,  8T. 
Master  of  musters,  Pennsylvania,  138. 
Masters,  Miss  Mary,  of  Pennsylvania,  135. 
Mattapony  River,  113,  116,  117. 
Mayor  of  Alexandria,  124. 
Mayor  of  Fredericksburg,  117. 
Mayor  of  Philadelphia,  140,  144. 
Mease,  Mr.,  125,  153. 
Mease,  James,  of  Philadelphia,  139. 
Mease,  John,  139. 
Measuring  chain,  97. 
Medical  Department  of  the  Army,  148. 
Medical  schools,  141. 
Medical  studies,  142. 

In  Europe,  147. 

Medicine  among  the  Indians,  149 
Meetinghouse,  141. 
Member  of  Congress,  dinner  to,  137. 
Member  of  the  old  Congress,  146. 
Memorandum  books  of  Washington,  74,  79, 

94, 97. 

Memorandum  of  books  in  library,  86. 
Memorial  relics  of  Washington,  97. 
Memorialize  the  King,  126. 
Mercer,  George,  107. 
Mercer,  Hugh,  107. 
Mercer,  John,  107. 
Merchants  of  Alexandria,  125. 
Meredith,  Rees,  146. 


164 


AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


Meredith,  Samuel,  138, 146. 
Middle    Department,    Continental   Army, 
general  returns,  87. 

Surgeon-General,  150. 
Middle  Temple,  London,  142,  145. 
Middletown,  Del.,  181. 
Mifflin,  Thomas,  136, 149, 151. 
Military  letters,  78. 

Military  organization  of  Philadelphia,  146. 
Military  papers,  86. 
Military  records,  108. 
Military  reputation,  109. 
Military  secretary  to  Washington,  145. 
Military  service  as  major,  146. 

As  surgeon,  147. 
Military  stores,  86, 140. 

Returns  of,  87,  90. 
Militia  company  of  Virginia,  120. 
Militia,  papers  relating  to,  86. 
Mill  plantation  farm,  122. 
Milner,  William,  154. 
Minister  of  Great  Britain,  150. 
Miscellaneous  papers,  84, 86, 90, 92, 93. 
Moland,  John,  137. 
Monmouth,  battle  of,  145, 147. 
Monroe,  James,  107. 
Montague,  David,  147. 
Montgomery  County,  Md.,  79. 
Montgomery,  John,  132. 
Moore,  Samuel  Preston,  151. 
Morgan,  Daniel,  107. 
Morgan,  Evan,  147. 

Morgan,  John,  Surgeon-General,  132,  147. 
Morris,  Gouverneur,  107. 
Morris,  Robert,  107,  124,  139. 
Morton,  John,  151. 
Mother  Country,  144. 
Mother  of  Washington,  78. 

Papers  of,  78. 
Moultrie,  William,  107. 
Mount  Airy,  116,  153. 

Mount  Vernon,  73,  75,  76,  77,  79,  80,  90,  92, 
95,  109,  116,  118,  120. 

Books  at,  95. 

Estate  of,  99,  116,  118. 

Library  and  manuscripts  at,  79,  88,  110. 

Mansion  at,  95,  122. 

Return  to,  153. 

Servants  at,  121. 

Treasures  of,  108. 
Moylan,  Mr.,  124. 
Moylan,  John,  124. 
Moylan,  Stephen,  124. 
Muddy  Hole  plantation,  116,  118,  122,  128. 
Museum  of  New  York  State  Library,  96. 
Hassau,  West  Indies,  121. 
Newberry  Library,  Chicago,  95. 
Ifeck  plantation,  118,  123. 
Kelson,  Thomas,  107. 
Nephew  and  heir,  75. 


New  Castle,  Del.,  130,  131,  139,  153. 

New  England,  133. 

New  Hampshire  Historical  Society,  99,  105 

New  Hampshire  officers,  resignations  of,  87. 

New  Hampshire  State  Library,  99. 

New  Jersey,  deputy  secretary  of,  145. 
Resignations  of  officers,  87. 
State  of,  105. 

New  Kent  County,  113,  116. 

New  meeting  house,  147. 

New  tavern,  or  city  tavern,  132, 133,  141,  144, 
149,  150,  153. 

New  Town  on  Chester,  131,  153. 

New  York,  95. 

New  York  City,  144. 

New  York  Historical  Society  publications, 
105. 

New  York  State  library,  95,  96,  104,  U.5. 

Nicholas,  John,  92. 

Nicholas,  Robert  Carter,  treasurer,  114. 

Niles'  register,  105. 

Noncombatants,  150. 

Non-importation  agreement,  138. 

Non -importation  resolutions,  109,  128. 

Norfolk,  Va.,  121. 

Norris,  Mary,  138. 

Northampton,  Pa.,  144. 

Northampton  County,  Pa.,  135,  152. 

North  Carolina,  resignation  of  officers,  87. 
State  of,  105. 

Northern  Department,  86. 

Northwestern  frontier,  102. 

Northumberland  County,  Pa.,  152. 

Northumberland,  England,  120. 

Oath  of  allegiance  to  Congress,  89,  134. 

Oath  of  allegiance  to  the  King,  134. 

Obigland,  Scotland,  121. 

Official  letters  of  Washington  published  in 

Boston,  103. 
Published  in  New  York,  81,  103,  104. 

Officers,  American  and  foreign,  84. 

Officers  of  the  Army,  82,  84,  99. 

Ohio,  State  of,  105. 

Old  and  intimate  friend,  121. 

Opinions  of  surviving  generals  of  Revolu- 
tion, 96. 

Orderly  book,  86,  92. 

Ornamental  gardening,  137. 

Original  letters  received  by  Washington, 
82,  84. 

Original  letters  taken    and   copi«-s  substi- 
tuted, 90. 

Original  records,  74. 

Oswald,  Mr.,  139. 

Overlooker  at  Mount  Vernon,  122. 

Paine,  Robert  Treat,  142. 

Pamunkey  River,  113, 116. 

Parker,  Joseph,  151. 

Parole,  declined  to  give,  139. 

Parole  of  Ed.  Shippen,  142. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      165 


Parole  of  James  Hamilton,  144. 

Paroles  taken  of  eminent  citizens,  135. 

Parsons,  Samuel  H.,  107. 

"Parson's  Cause,"  127. 

Patuxent  River,  129, 130. 

Papers  and  journals,  75. 
In  confusion,  78. 
In  possession  of  George  Corbin  "Wash 

ington,  87. 
Prior  to  the  Revolution,  78. 

Parliament,  126. 

Patriots  of  the  Revolution,  114. 

Patron  of  art,  137. 

Pawling,  Henry,  151. 

Pay  and  hospital  returns,  90. 

Peace  of  Paris,  77. 

Peale,  Charles  Wilson,  131. 

Pearce,  William,  99. 

Pearson,  Isaac,  151. 

Pemberton,  Joseph,  140. 

Pendleton,  Edmund,  107,  110,  114,  117,  126, 
141. 

Pendleton,  Philip,  126. 

Penn,  John,  Lieutenant  Governor  of  Penn- 
sylvania, 134,  135,  144,  148. 

Penn,    Richard,    Lieutenant  Governor   of 
Pennsylvania,  135,  144,  148. 

Penn,  Thomas,  149. 

Penn,  William,  133,  144. 

Penns  favored  concessions,  135. 

Pennock,  Joseph,  151. 

Pennsylvania,  assembly  of,  members,  151. 

Pennsylvania  Associator,  152. 

Pennsylvania  Bank,  140. 

Pennsylvania  Battalion,  146. 

Pennsylvania  Gazette,  149,  152. 

Pennsylvania,  first  legislature  convened, 
132. 

Pennsylvania  Historical  Society,  102,  104, 
108,  114. 

Pennsylvania  Hospital,  132,  141,  146,  148. 
Surgeon  in,  150. 

Pennsylvania  Magazine   of  History,   105t 
135. 

Pennsylvania  Militia,  147. 

Pennsylvania  officers,  resignations  of,  87. 

Pennsylvania  troops,  136,  147. 

Pension  from  British  Government,  134. 

People  in  free  hustings,  133. 

Permanent  union  suggested,  133. 

Personal  memoirs,  100. 

Perth,  Scotland,  138. 

Pesthouse  on  Province  Island,  136. 

Peter,  Mrs.,  99. 

Petition  to  the  King,  110,  138. 

Philadelphia,  73,  77, 109, 110. 

Central  to  all  the  Colonies,  128. 

Philadelphia  and  Lancaster,  137. 

Philadelphia  County,  149,  151. 

Philadelphia  Dispensary,  150. 

Physician  in  chief  to  American  Army,  148. 


Piankatank  River,  116. 

Pickering,  Timothy,  107. 

Pinckney,  Charles  CoteBworth,  107. 

Pinckney,  Thomas,  107, 

Pistole  fee,  114,  115. 

Pistol  from  Gen.  Lafayette,  96. 

Plan  of  confederation  of  colonies,  126. 

Plan  of  Mount  Vernon,  105. 

Plantation  in  King  William  County,  116. 

Pleasants,  Samuel,  133. 

Plowable  land,  118. 

Pohick  Bay,  125. 

Pohick  church,  119, 125, 128. 
Vestry  of,  128. 

Pohick  Creek,  119. 

Pohick  new  church  built,  119. 

Pointon  Manor,  Md.,  125. 

Political  History  of  our  country,  81. 

Pomits  Run,  123. 

Poole,  W.  F.,  librarian,  95. 

Port  of  Annapolis,  130. 

Port  Royal,  117. 

Port  Tobacco,  110, 121, 125. 

Portico  at  Mount  Vernon,  121. 

Posey,  Capt.  John,  122, 123. 

Posey,  Col.  Thomas,  123. 

Posey  Plantation,  122, 123. 

Potomac  River,  76, 110. 

Powder  removed  from  magazine,  127. 

President  of  Congress,  80, 81, 126, 136. 

President  of  Delaware,  138. 

President  of  the  Republic,  75. 

President  of  Second  Provincial  Congress ,  145. 

President  of  Virginia  Convention,  126. 

President  of  William  and  Mary  College,  115. 

Presbyterian  church,  141. 

Pretender's  defeat,  137. 

Primogeniture  abolished  in  Maryland,  126, 

Prince  George  County,  Md.,  129, 130, 153. 

Prince  William  County  planters,  118. 

Princeton,  N.  J.,  116,  120, 132. 
Attack  on,  139. 
Battle  of,  124. 

Princeton  College,  141, 145, 149. 

Printed  books,  89. 

Private  libraries  rich  in  Washington  auto- 
graphs, 105. 
Private  papers,  88,  92. 
Reserved,  88, 91. 
Retained,  91. 
Prizes  taken  at  sea,  152. 
Property  confiscated,  134. 
Protracting  instruments,  97. 
Province  Island,  136, 149. 
Province  of  Pennsylvania,  149. 
Provincial  Congress,  150. 

Second,  145. 

Provincial  council,  143, 149, 
Provincial  council  of  Pennsylvania,  134, 142, 

144. 
Provincial  governor  of  Virginia,  98. 


166 


AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


Provisions,  returns  of,  90. 

Public  buildings  in  Philadelphia,  144. 

Public  dinners,  137. 

Public  affairs,  letters  on,  90. 

Public  and  private  manuscripts,  85, 88. 

Putnam,  Israel,  107. 

Quaker  meetinghouse,  140. 

Quartermaster's  Department,  136. 

Quartermaster-General,  136. 

Quartermaster's  returns,  87,  89. 

Quarantine  hospital,  136. 

Quebec,  address  to  inhabitants  of,  138. 

Queen  Anne  County,  131, 134. 

Queen  Anne  village,  130. 

Races  in  Philadelphia,  135. 

Raleigh  tavern,  113. 

Ramsay,  Dennis,  120. 

Ramsay,  Capt.  William,  119, 120, 121. 

Ramsay,  Dr.  William,  120, 122. 

Randolph,  Edmund,  102, 107, 115. 

Randolph,  John,  115. 

Randolph,  Sir  John,  115. 

Randolph,  Peyton,  114, 115, 133, 141. 

Raney,  John,  151. 

Rappahannock  plantations,  116. 

Rappahannock  River,  117. 

Rawlins,  Mr.,  78. 

Records  of  the  Government,  81, 83. 

"Red  Hill,"  Charlotte  County,  127. 

Redman,  Dr.  John,  147, 149. 

Reed,  Joseph,  101, 107, 145. 

Refused  compensation  for  services,  150. 

Regimental  returns,  89. 

Register  of  wills,  Pennsylvania,  139. 

Relics  of  Gen.  Washington,  95,  96. 

Commercial  value  of,  108. 

Fad  in,  107. 

How  disposed,  108. 

Reserved  Washington  papers,  82,  89,  90,  93. 
Reports  of  guards,  89. 
Republic,  73,  74. 

Resignations  and  discharges,  87. 
Resignations  of  officers  by  States,  89. 
Resting  place  of  Washington  relics,  110. 
Resolutions  offered  by  Patrick  Henry,  127. 
Revolutionary  Army,  86. 
Revolutionary  War,  records  of  events,  85. 

Papers  on,  81,  83,  84,  190. 
Rhoads,  Samuel,  151. 
Rhode  Island,  State  of,  105. 
Rhode  Island  officers,  resignations  of,  87. 
Richmond,  Va.,  113,  117,  126,  133. 
Rights  of  the  colonies,  127. 
Ringgold,  James,  130. 
River  farm  plantation,  116,  118. 
River  View  farm,  118. 
"Riversdale,"153. 
Roberdeau,  Daniel,  152. 
Roberdeau,  Isaac,  152,  153. 
Roberts,  Charles,  105. 


Roberts,  Jonathan,  151. 

Robinson,  Benjamin,  126. 

Robinson,  John,  107,  114. 

Rochambeau,  Gen.,  102. 

Correspondence  of,  with  Washington 
102. 

Rock  Hall,  153. 

Rock  Hall  Ferry,  130,  131. 

Rockville,  Montgomery  County,  Md.,  96. 

Rodman,  William,  151. 

Romish  Church,  147. 

Ross,  George,  151,  152. 

Ross,  John,  138,  151. 

Round  Hill,  128. 

Roy,  Boswell,  117. 

Royal  Collector  of  Potomac,  119. 

Royal  Society  of  London.  148. 

Roy's  ordinary,  117. 

Roy's  warehouse,  117. 

Royston's,  Caroline  Co.,  117, 

Rowboat,  110. 

Rules  of  good  behavior,  93. 

Rumney,  John,  &  Co.,  121. 

Rumney,  Dr.  William,  119,  120,  121. 

Rumney,  William,  merchant,  121,  122. 

Rush,  Dr.  Benjamin,  149. 

Rush,  John,  149. 

Rutledge,  Edward,  107. 

Rutledge,  John,  107. 

St.  Clair,  Arthur,  102,  107. 

St.  John's  College,  Maryland,  116,  135. 

St.  Mary's  Catholic  church,  147. 

St.  Peter's  church,  Episcopal,  140,  141. 

Sale  at  Belvoir,  121. 

Sale  of  books  from  Mount  Yernoii,  97. 

Sale  of  part  of  Mount  Vernon  library,  97. 

Sale  of  relics,  108. 

Sassafras  River,  130,  131. 

Schedule  of  Washington  papers,  85,  86,  93. 

Schnyler,  Philip,  102,  107. 

Schuylkill  River,  136. 

Scotland,  120. 

Second  Congress,  142. 

Secretary  of  State,  80,  83,  87,  88,  89,  91,  127. 

Senator  elect,  127. 

Severn  River,  130. 

Shelton,  Miss,  127. 

Sherman,  Roger,  107. 

Shippen,  Edward,  135,  141, 142. 

Shippen,  Joseph,  141. 

Shippen,  Margaret,  142. 

Shippen,  WiUiam,  sr.,  139,  141, 143. 

Shippen,  Dr.  William,  jr.,  132,  133,  134,  142, 
145. 

Shipping  merchants,  118,  138,  139. 

Shrewsbury,  Pa.,  146. 

Signers  of  the  TJ.  S.  Constitution,  105. 

Signers  of  the  Declaration  oi    Independ- 
ence, 105,  110,  150,  152. 

Silk  hose,  154. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIAKY,  1774 — TONER.     167 


"Silk  Stocking  Company,"  146. 

Sinclair,  John,  107. 

Sinclair,  Sir  John,  124. 

Sixth  Lord  Baltimore,  153. 

Slaughter,  Mrs.  Ann,  124. 

Slough,  Matthias,  152. 

Smelting  lead  works  in  Pennsylvania,  152. 

Smith,  Thomas,  146, 149. 

Society  of  the  Cincinnati,  125. 

Society  for  Diffusion  of  Useful  Knowledge, 

144. 

Society  of  Friends,  140,  141. 
South  Carolina,  State  of,  105. 
Southern  Literary  Messinger,  98. 
Sparks,  Jared,  73,  74, 78,  79,  82,  83, 84,  85,  86, 

88,  89,  90,  91,  92,  93,  99,  100,  103,  104,  108. 
Speaker  of  house  of  delegates,  139. 
Speaker  of  Virginia  assembly,  114,  127. 
Spencer,  Hall,  130. 
Spencer,  James,  130. 
Spencer,  Richard,  130. 
Spotswood,  Alexander,  107. 
Spottsylvania  County,  Va. ,  117. 
Sprague,  Rev.  "William  B.,  90. 
Stafford  County,  Va.,  118. 
Stamp  Act,  remonstrance  to,  115. 
Stamp  Act  void,  126,  127. 
State  assembly  of  Pennsylvania,  135, 137. 
State  dinner,  the  first,  150. 
State  government,  127. 
State  House,  137. 

State  House,  Mass-meeting  at,  152. 
State  island,  136. 
State  papers,  83. 
Steel,  Rosalie,  153. 
Stephen,  Adam,  107. 
Steuben,  Baron,  107. 
Stevens,  Henry,  of  London,  95,  97. 
Stewarts,  family  of,  125. 
Stirling,  Lord,  107. 
Stockton,  Julia,  150. 
Stockton,  Richard,  150. 
Stockton,  Robert,  145. 
Stone,  David,  125. 
Stone,  Thomas,  110,  125. 
Stone,  Governor  William,  125V 
Stone  tile  for  portico  at  Mount  Vernon,  121. 
Storeroom  near  Alexandria,  120. 
Stuart,  Charles,  153. 
Stuart,  David,  107,  116,  125. 
"Studley,"  Hanover  County,  127. 
Sullivan,  John,  107. 

"Sultana"  won  the  race  second  day,  135. 
Supplies  for  the  Army,  140. 
Supreme  executive  council  of  Pennsylvania 

136. 

Supreme  court,  prothonotary  of,  142,  144. 
Surveying  instruments,  96. 
Surveyors  of  the  port,  139. 
Surveyors'  plats,  returned  to  counties,  98. 


Surgeon  in  Army,  121. 

Surgeon  in  Pennsylvania  navy,  150. 

Surgeon  in  Revolution,  121,  125. 

Swan  Point,  Maryland,  130. 

Swedes  on  Delaware,  131. 

Swoope,  Michael,  152. 

Swords  of  Gen.  Washington,  96. 

Sydenham  of  America,  150. 

Talmage,  Benjamin,  107. 

Tax  bill  impracticable,  127. 

Tazewell  Hall,  Virginia.,  114, 115. 

Telescope  devised,  125. 

Temple  in  London,  135,  137, 140. 

Tennent,  Rev.  Gilbert,  147. 

Terrapin  found,  habitat  on  Chester  Run,  131. 

Theory  and  practice  of  medicine,  148. 

Thomas,  governor  of  Pennsylvania,  137. 

Thomson,  Charles,  secretary,  133. 151. 

Thompson,  William,  152. 

Three  lower  counties,  Delaware,  139. 

Tide- water  villages  of  Virginia,  76. 

Tilghman  family,  135. 

Tilghman,  James,  107,  134,  139. 

Tilghman,  Tench,  107. 

Tilghman,  William,  107. 

Titles,  number  in  Washington  Library,  95. 

Toasts  at  dinner,  151. 

Tobacco-rolling  house,  123. 

Todd's  bridge,  116,  117. 

Todd's  ordinary,  117, 

Toner  Collection,  106. 

Transcript  letter  books,  77. 

Treasurer  of  the  United  States,  146. 

Treasurer  of  United  States  Mint,  150. 

Treasurer  of  Virginia,  114. 

Treaties  with  Indians,  133. 

Trenton,  N.J.,  145. 

Battle  of,  150. 
Triplett,  Francis,  128. 
Triplett,  Philip,  128. 
Triplett,  Thomas,  126, 128. 
Triplett,  William,  128. 
Tripod,  or  Jacob's  Staff,  97. 
Troops  enlisted,  136. 
Truck  garden,  137. 

Trumbull,  Gen.  Jonathan,  98,  104,  107. 
Trumbull  papers,  98. 
Truro  Parish,  Va.,  93, 119. 
Tyler,  Thomas  G.,  of  Aquia,  117. 
Union  ship  at  Philadelphia,  149. 
United  States,  79, 80, 83, 89, 94. 
United  States,  archives  of,  98. 
United  States  Government,  79.J83. 
United  States  Senator,  128. 
United  States,  Treasurer  of,  146. 
Unpublished  Washington  letters,  100. 
Upland,  Chester  County,  Pa.,  132. 
Upper  Marlboro,  110, 126, 129, 153. 
Upper  Potomac,  120. 
University  of  Edinburgh,  121, 132, 148, 149. 


168 


AMERICAN   HISTORICAL   ASSOCIATION. 


University  of  Pennsylvania,  132, 141, 148. 

Valley  Forge,  suffering  at,  136. 

Valley  of  Virginia,  surveys  in,  98, 122. 

Vaucluse,  Va.,  121. 

Venison  dinner,  146. 

Vestryman  of  Pohick  Church,  128. 

Vice-admiralty  judge,  142. 

Virginia,  capital  of,  113. 

Virginia  convention,  113,  114,  115,  126,  128, 

133. 

Virginia  delegates  to  Congress,  141. 
Virginia  gentlemen,  members,  141. 
Virginia  Historical  Kegister,  98. 
Virginia  Historical  Society,  97, 98. 
Virginia  Line,  86. 

Virginia  officers,  resignations  of,  87. 
Virginia  troops,  121. 
Virginia  State  library,  98. 
Visitors,  at  Mount  Vernon,  110. 
Visitors  of  William  and  Mary  College,  115. 
Volumes  of  Washington's  diary,  74. 
Volunteer  aid  to  Washington,  147. 
Vouchers  preserved  by  Washington,  75. 
Voyage  to  Barbadoes,  94. 
Wales,  Great  Britain,  146, 147. 
War  between  the  States,  97. 
War  for  independence,  74. 
"  Warburton,"  Fort  Washington,  126. 
Ward,  Artemas,  107. 
Warren,  James,  107. 
Warren,  John,  107. 
Warren,  Joseph,  107. 
Washington,  Augustine,  father  of  George, 

117. 
Washington,   Lawrence,    half    brother  of 

George,  79. 
Washington,  Justice  Bushrod,  74, 79, 81,  82, 

90,91,92,95,96,97,108. 
Washington,  Catherine,  117. 
Washington,  Gen.  George,  80,  81,  113,  114, 
135, 141, 142. 

Agent  for  G.  W.  Fairfax,  122. 

As  a  speaker,  110. 

Autographs  in  books,  97. 

Autograph  letters,  82, 83. 

Autograph  manuscripts,  82, 86. 

Autographs  numerous,  103. 

Book  plate,  107. 

Books  and  manuscripts,  79. 

Bought  pew,  119. 

Busy  life,  109. 

Cash  book,  153. 

Care  of  papers,  75. 

Chairman  of  meeting,  128. 

Contributes  to  expense  of  convention. 
133. 

Correspondents  of,  106. 

Cyphering  book,  93. 

Death  of,  78. 

Devise  of  his  library,  75. 


Washington,  Gen.  George — Continued: 
Diary,  88, 97, 110,  111. 
Directions  as  to  his  property,  78. 
Drafts  of  letters  preserved,  97, 100. 
Early  life  records  in  his  manuscript,  74. 
Estimate  of  his  papers,  76. 
Expenses  in  the  Army,  76. 
Expenses  in  Congress,  153. 
Expenses  in  Presidential  office,  82. 
Family  papers,  80. 
Farm  manager,  99. 
French  poetry  on,  87. 
Gift  of  "Woodlawn  "  to  Lewis,  90. 
Heirs,  gratitude  of,  108. 
House  in  Williamsburg,  114. 
Journals  and  diaries,  77, 88, 110. 
Jomrnal  as  President,  82. 
Ledger,  115. 
Letters  destroyed,  99. 
Letters  in  the  great  libraries,  88, 106. 
Letters,  miscellaneous,  80, 87. 
Letters  on  public  affairs,  109,  111. 
Letters,  publication  of,  105. 
Letters,  press  copies  of,  100. 
Letters,  private  and  official,  97. 
Letters  to  Congress,  84,  90. 
Letters  to  governor  of  Virginia,  98. 
Letters,  unpublished,  100. 
Letters,  where  to  be  found,  100. 
Library,  appraisement  of,  78, 79, 83. 
Library,  part  of,  sold,  97. 
Life  and  correspondence,  74, 83. 
Life  and  writings,  by  Sparks,  100. 
Literary  remains,  98, 106. 
Manuscripts,  89, 103. 
Marriage,  116. 

Masonic  lodge,  a  member  of,  128. 
Memoir  of,  proposed,  77. 
Memorandums,  value  of,  97,  114. 
Memorials,  97. 
Mother,  117,  154. 

Papers,  bill  for  purchase  of,  83,  90. 
Papers  delivered,  89,  92. 
Papers  desired  by  the  Government,  82. 
Papers  essential  in  writing  life  of,  77. 
Papers,  extent  of,  74,  80,  81,  82. 
Papers  liable  to  destruction.  82. 
Papers  of  high  historic  value,  82. 
Papers  packed  for  removal,  76. 
Papers  in  hands  of  Sparks,  83. 
Papers,  price  paid  for,  84,  92. 
Papers,  preservation  of,  100,  106. 
Papers  purchased,  83. 
Papers  systematically  arranged,  75. 
Personal  expenses,  76. 
Plantations,  116. 
Plats  of  surveys,  98. 
Purchases  in  Philadelphia,  153. 
Politeness  of,  123. 
Popularity  of,  111. 


GEORGE  WASHINGTON'S  DIARY,  1774 — TONER.      169 


Washington,  Gen.  George— Continued : 

Preserver  of  records,  75. 

Relics,  95,  96,  107,  108. 

Relics,  sale  of,  95,  96. 

Remaining  papers,  93. 

Resigns  command,  136. 

Servants  and  horses,  131. 

Stepson,  116. 

Swords,  96. 

Trustee  of  Alexandria,  123. 

Vesteryman,  119. 

Voluminous  writer,  75. 

Watch  and  chain,  96. 

Without  vanity,  77. 

Writings,  73. 

Writings,  no  complete  collection  of,  101. 
Washington,  Hon.  Geo.  Corbin,  79,  80,  81, 

83,  86,  87,  88,  89,  90,  91,  93,  94,  95,  96. 
Washington,  James  Barroll,  96. 
Washington,  Jane,  79. 
Washington,  John  Augustine,  79,  95,  97. 
Washington,  Col.  Lewis  William,  80,  96. 
Washington,  Mrs.  Col.  Lewis  Wm.,  96. 
Washington,  Lund,  directed  the  destruc- 
tion of  General's  letters,  99, 119. 
Washington,  Lund,  jr.,  94,  95. 
Washington,  Martha,  99, 120,  123,  153. 
Washington,  Mary,  mother  of  George,  117, 

154. 

Washington,  William  Augustine,  79. 
Washington  City,  letters  relating  to,  87. 
Watch,  gold,  chain,  and  seal,  96. 
Waters,  Israel,  135. 
Wayne,  Anthony,  107, 151,  152. 
Weare,  Governor  Meshech,  90, 107. 
Weaver,  Mr.  92. 
Webb,  James,  152. 
West,  Benjamin,  artist,  148. 
West,  Hugh,  119. 
West,  Sybil,  119. 
West  Indies,  121, 152. 
West  Philadelphia,  137. 
West  Point,  86. 
West  River,  199. 


West  Virginia,  96. 

Westcott,  Charles  T.,  131. 

Westmoreland  County,  Vs.,  152. 

West's  painting    of    Christ   healing    the 

sick,  148. 

Wharton,  Joseph,  148. 
Where  and  how  my  time  is  spent,  113,  130, 

144. 

White  Haven,  England,  121. 
White  House,  New  Kent,  116. 
Whipped  syllabubs,  140. 
Wilmington,  Del.,  131,  132,  137. 
Will  of  Justice  B.  Washington,  79,  88. 
Will  of  General  Washington,  88. 
William  and  Mary  College,  114,  115. 
Williamsburg,  Va.,  109,  113, 114,  115, 118. 
Willing,  Thomas,  140,  150. 
Willing  and  Norris,  140. 
Willis,  Francis,  sr.,  118. 
Willis,  Mr.  Francis,  jr.,  118. 
Willis,  Lewis,  118. 
Wilson,  James,  107. 
Winchester,  troops  at,  121, 153. 
Winsor's  historj  of  America,  90. 
Wisconsin,  State  of,  105. 
Wisest  of  statesmen,  128. 
Witherspoon,  Rev.  John,  76,  78, 10T. 
Wolcott,  Oliver,  107. 
Wood,  James,  107. 
Wood  Lawn  farm,  90. 
Woodford,  William,  107. 
Woodlands  on  the  Schuylkill,  137. 
Woodstock,  128. 
Wooster,  David,  107. 
Wynkoop,  Gerardus,  151. 
Wythe,  Chancellor,  127. 
Yellow  fever  in  Philadelphia,  15*. 
Young,  Arthur,  letter  to,  122. 
York  County,  152. 
York  River,  113. 
Yorktown,  116,  153. 
Zantzinger,  William  C.,  95. 
Zeugea,  John  Peter,  144.